Typically, soft ticks
are found in rodent nesting material (Wheeler, 1942).
were cleaned with 70% ethanol in order to minimize external contamination.
Ticks spend relatively short periods of their lives mating and blood-feeding on hosts with soft ticks
feeding rapidly for hours and dropping off; compared to hard ticks, which blood-feed for many days (6-12) before dropping off for egg-laying.
Hard ticks and soft ticks
occur in different habitats.
Mouth parts of adult soft ticks
are located on the ventral surface and are not visible dorsally.
In the case of most soft ticks
, the larva feeds on its host in the den or nest, then detaches and molts to produce an eight-legged nymph.
The ticks implicated in the four tick-borne illnesses outlined above belong to the Ixodidae (hard ticks) family as opposed to the soft tick
have a long life-span and can preserve the CCHF virus for long periods, potentially providing a persistent virus reservoir, for infection of the corresponding livestock and hard ticks in a region, and consequently, possible outbreaks of CCHF.
Tick biology--There are three families of ticks recognized in the world today: (1) Ixodidae (hard ticks), (2) Argasidae (soft ticks
), and (3) Nuttalliellidae, a small, curious, little-known group with some characteristics of both hard and soft ticks
However, in recent decades, many genetically related bacteria have been found in hard and soft ticks
Tickborne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a spirochetal infection transmitted to humans through the bites of soft ticks
Distribution of soft ticks
and their natural infection with Borrelia in a focus of relapsing fever in Iran.
Health-care providers should consider TBRF in the differential diagnosis of febrile patients with potential exposure to soft ticks
These viruses have been primarily associated with either hard or soft ticks
and have a wide geographic distribution (1-8).
The soft ticks
of the genus Ornithodoros, which transmit the illness, usually feed on rodents and frequently infest rodent nesting material (2 ).