(23.) Daniel Fountain, Long on Religion, Short on Christianity: Slave Religion
Though stimulating in its subject matter, the book disappoints in its failure to take much account of the work on slave religion
published since the 1970s and in the poor standard of its copyediting.
Organized into sections dealing with historiography, slave religion
, concepts of freedom and destiny, new religious movements, and African American religious culture, this volume surveys the best current scholarly research and interpretation of African American religion and culture.
He continues citing the early "black American scholars" contributing to the field and begins with DuBois and Woodson without reference to the anti-ruling class culture production of slave religion
What could have been a more radical understanding of America than Malcolm's when he called for blacks to give up the slave religion
of Christianity and discover integrity and Fellowship in the worship of Allah?
Raboteau, Slave Religion
: The "Invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978); Mechal Sobel, Trabelin' On: The Slave Journey to an Afro-Baptist Faith (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1979); Margaret Washington Creel, A Peculiar People: Slave Religion
and Community-Culture Among the Gullah (New York: New York University Press, 1988); Sylvia R.
Forbidden by Jenkins to practice the Christianity that Marrant has brought to them, the small "society" of enslaved worshippers continue worshipping, hiding away in secret locations called "hush-harbors" (Slave Religion
Touchstone, "Planters and Slave Religion
in the Deep South" (Ph.D.
DOWN, UP, AND OVER: SLAVE RELIGION
AND BLACK THEOLOGY.
In the mid-twentieth century, spokespersons, such as Malcolm X, harshly criticized Christianity as a "slave religion
." Christianity was not a slave religion
in the sense that slaveholders and their sympathizers imposed the faith on the enslaved and thereby succeeded in stamping out their desires and concrete efforts for freedom.