The need to defend himself from Iroquoian and Siouan
raiders as well as his desire to enrich his wealth via a lucrative trade in copper make much more sense than the Eurocentric notion that he immediately feared the small groups of bumbling and transitory Europeans such as those who failed twice to establish themselves at Roanoke.
The elders present, three women and three men, are all fluent speakers of Ponca (linguistically Siouan
and closely related to Omaha) and are the last living persons to have specific forms of Ponca language and cultural knowledge.
La Flesche was Omaha, a people who speak a similar Siouan
dialect; so he was not only fully able to understand the language of the Osage, but also the cultural context of the stories he heard.
See also a comparison of vocabulary words in the Siouan
language family at www.native-languages.org/famsio_words.htm.
Papers discuss unidirectionality of grammaticalization in an evolutionary perspective, grammaticalization of Korean numeral classifiers, the grammaticalization of the German preposition von as a genitive equivalent, the grammaticalization of agreement in Chibchan, a grammaticalization perspective on decay and loss of applicatives in Siouan
languages, the semantic diversity of generalized action verbs, predicting future change of relative clauses of Japanese, the catalytic function of constructional restrictions in grammaticalization, grammaticalization of periphrastic constructions, grammaticalization of honorific constructions in Japanese, and other topics.
Although it is not easy to find examples where all four categories are present, Hengeveld states that the ordering does indeed seem to apply to subsets of operators, and gives examples of Predicate [[pi].sub.1] [[pi].sub.2] [[pi].sub.3] ordering from Hidatsa (Siouan
), Predicate r[[pi].sub.2] [[pi].sub.3] from Diegueno (Yuman) and Predicate [[pi].sub.2] [[pi].sub.3] [[pi].sub.4] from Quechua (Andean).
See James Constantine Pilling, Bibliography of Siouan
Languages (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1887), 21; Personnel File, Charles Hoffman, NPRC and http://www.us-census.org/pub/usgenweb/census/_na/1885-1930/ne/santee-sioux/1885.txt (Accessed May 24, 2007).
This warfare, which began before the tribes became known to the whites, had its origin at the time of the westward migration of the Chippewa (Ojibwa), who found their progress barred by the Dakota, a Siouan
The hitchhiker that Shadow picks up, Samantha Black Crow, is a character from Siouan
fables who fulfils a tutelary function when she tells him stories and fables while they travel together.
Neither Welshmen nor Jews, the Mandan were a Siouan
Indian people who lived in earthen lodges along the Missouri River and prospered as middlemen in a trade that stretched from the upper Missouri to Canada.
Catawban, and Siouan
Linguistics in Memory of Frank T.
After all, in 1830, arriving from Boston, what would one expect him to say other than "Slaves!" Blacks and First Nation peoples (Siouan
, Iroquoian, and others) shared skills and knowledge that made for greater proficiency in navigating through heavy currents and dangerous shoals.
Perhaps on calendars being sold for intertribal use we can use a name from each of twelve different language families (such as Siouan
, Algonkian, Dine, Muskohegan, etc.) along with the current Roman name, or we can translate into English names that often have the same meaning.
Ward and Davis (1999:258) argue that in the intensely studied Siouan
project area of north central North Carolina, "there is no ethnographic or archaeological evidence of epidemic diseases until the arrival of the Virginia traders in the last half of the seventeenth century." This is an area not directly contacted by Spanish Expeditions, but the lack of disease in this area does call into question the notion of sweeping pandemics.
The original confederation of Lakota was made up of seven nations that spoke three dialects of the language classified as Siouan
. The Kul Wicasa Qyate or Lower Brule Sioux Tribe are a Tribe of the Sicangu, or Burned Thighs.