Adaptive plasticity in development of Scaphiopus
couchii tadpoles in desert ponds.
1977) compared the food habits of four species of spadefoot toads; the specimens of Scaphiopus
holbrookii used in this study were all from Vigo County and largely from the Dave's Pond site.
Developmental polymorphism in the tadpoles of the spadefoot toad Scaphiopus
Keywords: Breeding frequency, breeding season, breeding success, Eastern Spadefoot, Illinois, Scaphiopus
Hormonal correlates of environmentally induced metamorphosis in the Western Spadefoot Toad, Scaphiopus
Only two species were recorded, Great Plains toad, Bufo cognatus Say, and Couch's spade foot, Scaphiopus
couchii Baird; these species were not present in 2005.
These sites have produced approximately 4000 amphibian captures of six different species: one salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) and five frogs (Rana sylvatica, Rana pipiens, Bufo cognatus, Pseudacris maculata, and Scaphiopus
berlandieri, and Scaphiopus
couchi), and four turtle species (Kinosternon flavescens, K.
opacum (marbled salamander) Northerly Siren intermedia (lesser siren) Northerly Hyla cinerea (green tree frog) Northerly Scaphiopus
holbrookii (eastern spadefoot) Northerly Apalone spinifera pallida (pallid spiny softshell) * Northerly Pseudemys concinna (river cooter) ** Northerly Terrapene carolina (eastern box turtle) Northerly Scincella lateralis (ground skink) Northerly Lampropeltis calligaster (prairie kingsnake) Northerly L.
alexanderi was reported from sediments in the Esmeralda Formation of Miocene age (Zweifel 1956) and an undescribed turtle from the same formation was listed by MacDonald and Pelletier (1958).
Groups of three larvae from all three species (Experiment 1) or isolated larvae from two species (Experiment 2) in the genus Scaphiopus
were reared at three food levels.
Experimental Control fence (EF) fence Taxon With Without When When EF wings wings EF did not had have wings wings Amphibians Acris blanchardi 6 5 1 0 Ambystoma opacum 5 0 0 5 Ambystoma texanum 0 0 1 0 Anaxyrus americanus 7 3 12 4 charlesmithi Anaxyrus woodhousii 1 1 0 0 Gastrophryne 113 96 3 2 carolinensis Hyla cinerea 0 0 0 1 Hyla versicolor 1 0 0 4 Lithobates 1 0 0 0 areolatus areolatus Lithobates 39 6 0 0 damitans Lithobates 90 56 25 15 palustris Lithobates 146 69 128 75 sphenocephalus utricularius Notophthalmus 83 73 2 4 viridescens louisianensis Pseudacris 2 2 2 0 streckeri Scaphiopus
115 75 48 32 hurterii Total no.
fouquettei, Acris crepitans, Gastrophryne carolinensis and Scaphiopus
Due to the high permeability of the skin and to the susceptibility to desiccation under arid conditions, the annual activity period of the amphibians like Spea multiplicata (formerly Scaphiopus
multiplicatus) depends upon the availability of moisture; consequently, the daily activity tends to be concentrated at night (Degenhardt et al.
These species were Eleutherodactyl us planirostris (greenhouse frog), Rana capito (gopher frog), Scaphiopus
holbrooki (eastern spadefoot toad), Ophisaurus ventralis (eastern glass lizard), Rhineura floridana (Florida worm lizard), Blarina carolinensis (southern shorttailed shrew), Ochrotomys nuttali (golden mouse), Peromyscus gossypinus (cotton mouse), Reithrodontomys humilus (eastern harvest mouse), and Sorex longirostris (southeastern shrew).