Lano enlarges our knowledge of the latest Cretaceous faunas: it includes one of the oldest records of both Salamandridae
and Palaeobatrachidae lissamphibians in the world (Duffaud and Rage, 1999), and one of the oldest records of amphisbaenians or anguids in Europe (Rage, 1999).
The aquatic members of the family Salamandridae
which constitute the genus Molge.
The most complex condition, found in the Ambystomatidae, Hynobiidae, Proteidae, Salamandridae, and Siren idae, consists of the following ducts leading from the testes sequentially: the vasa efferentia, Bidder's duct (longitudinal collecting duct), afferent epididymal ducts, and efferent epididymal ducts.
in all other salamanders the collecting ducts bend caudally during development (Rodgers and Risley, 1938) and either anastomose and enter the cloaca (in the Plethodontidae and some Salamandridae; Francis, 1934; Baker, 1965; Strickland, 1966), anastomose and enter Wolthan ducts (in the Ambystomatidae, Amphiumidae, and some Salamandridae, Baker, 1945; Baker and Taylor, 1964; Baker, 1965), or enter the cloaca individually (in the Cryptobranchidae and Hynobiidae; Ratcliff, 1965; Yamagiwa, 1924).
Characters of the diapophyses and parapophyses (presented above) and the overall size of the vertebrae omit the fossils from the Rhyacotritonidae, Ambystomatidae, Dicamptodontidae, and Salamandridae.
Members of the following families of salamanders live today along the western North American coast and coastal lowlands up into the mountains, areas receiving significant amounts of rainfall: Ambystomatidae, Dicamptodontidae, Plethodontidae, Rhyacotritonidae, Salamandridae (Petranka 1998).
This tapeworm appears to show little host specificity and a wide geographic range as it has now been reported to infect six members of the family Plethodontidae and two members of the family Salamandridae
(Table 1) in various states, primarily in the upper Midwest and eastern United States.
tigrinum (Green), tiger salamander I Family Salamandridae
(newts) Notophthalmus viridescens (Rafinesque), eastern new I Family Plethodontidae (lungless salamanders) Aneides aeneus (Cope & Packard), green salamander SE Desmognathus fuscus (Green), northern SE dusky salamander Eurycea cirrigera (Green), two-lined salamander C, S E.
This amalgamation has occurred several times independently (in the families Salamandridae
and Plethodontidae) and would be homoplastic in any of the hypotheses of urodele phylogeny presented by Larson and Dimmick (1993).