Vascular remodeling and arterial calcification are directly mediated by S100A12
(EN-RAGE) in chronic kidney disease.
is produced mainly by granulocytes upon inflammatory activation and acts independently of S100A8 and S100A9 (17).
: a novel noninvasive marker in children with Crohn's disease.
, also known as calgranulin C, is one of the calcium-binding S100 family proteins.
Calgranulin C (S100A12
) is a constitutive cytosolic protein similar to calprotectin, which occurs in human neutrophils, also produced by monocytes.
Carotid plaque YKL-40 mRNA levels were significantly increased in patients with recent ischemic symptoms within 2 months compared to those in other patients.[sup] Plaque and plasma suPAR levels were significantly increased in symptomatic patients with carotid plaques compared to those in asymptomatic patients with carotid plaques.[sup] Plasma S100A12
levels were significantly increased in patients with carotid atherosclerotic high-grade stenosis compared to those in healthy controls and highest in patients with the most recent symptoms within 2 months.
Madden, "Hypoxia mediated release of endothelial microparticles and increased association of S100A12
with circulating neutrophils," Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol.
In any case, more studies must be done because in another paper fecal biomarkers calprotectin and S100A12
have moderate specificity but low sensitivity .
The 2 S100A8 and S100A12
species each consisted of unmodified full-length and apparently truncated forms that have not previously been described.
Sun et al., "Effect of S100A12
and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products on the occurrence of severe acute pancreatitis," Journal of Digestive Diseases, vol.
Kim et al., "Circulating levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end product are inversely associated with vascular calcification in patients on haemodialysis independent of S100A12
(EN-RAGE) levels," Nephrology (Carlton), vol.
Inflammatory S100A9 and S100A12
proteins in Alzheimer's disease.
S100 proteins are part of the inflammatory response and a number of these proinflammatory cytokines (S100B, S100A6, S100A7, S100A1, S100A9, and S100A12
) have been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, such as AD.
Brun, "S100 proteins calprotectin and S100A12
are related to radiographic changes rather than disease activity in psoriatic arthritis with low disease activity," Journal of Rheumatology, vol.
In a first step we cloned human S100B, S100Al through -A6, S100A12
, and S100A13 into expression vectors for high expression in Escherichia coli and purified the recombinant proteins by ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by [Ca.sup.2+]-dependent hydrophobic interaction, size-exclusion, and/or exchange chromatography (1, 3).