Although an exhaustive study of the effect of wood type was not included, we did test smoke from pine "sawdust" on Emmenanthe and Romneya and found that it was equally as effective as smoke from Adenostoma wood.
Smoke-stimulated germination generally was not light dependent, although in two cases, Romneya [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 3 OMITTED] and Allophyllum, smoke-induced germination was significantly (P [less than] 0.
15-min exposure was lethal to Emmenanthe germination but optimum for Romneya germination [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 2 OMITTED].
2] (12-h pulse) 0 30 100 90 0 Romneya Control 0 0 0 0 0 KN[O.
In contrast, other species such as Romneya tolerated full-strength solutions prepared from 10-min exposure, but declined with dilution [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 5 OMITTED].
Gaseous transfer of smoke chemicals is apparent from the high germination induced in both Emmenanthe and Romneya seeds when untreated moist seeds were exposed indirectly to vapors emitted from moistened smoked sand (or filter paper) [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4C OMITTED].
Buried Romneya seeds were found to be smoke-stimulated at shorter durations of smoke exposure, and others, e.
2) In Romneya, scarification alone was largely ineffective, but, scarification plus gibberellic acid (GA) induced complete germination - though scarification plus potassium nitrate, ethylene, or carbon dioxide failed to stimulate germination.
On the other hand, Romneya failed to respond to any acid treatment [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 7 OMITTED], including continuous application of 50 or 100 mmol/[m.
Neither Romneya nor Dicentra germinated in response to nitric or sulfuric acids solutions buffered at pH3-8.
Of five smoke-stimulated species tested, we ranked them from most to least hydrophobic as follows: Dicentra [greater than] Romneya [much greater than] Emmenanthe [greater than] Phacelia grandiflora [greater than] Silene multinervia [greater than] Caulanthus.
Dye did not penetrate beyond the outer cuticle of dormant Ceanothus seeds, whereas in dormant smoke-stimulated species it was readily adsorbed by the testa, but was blocked from penetrating the endosperm by a subdermal barrier - a pattern observed for Emmenanthe, Phacelia grandiflora, Romneya, and Dicentra.
During the dormant season many species such as Acanthus (Bear's Britches), Aesculus (Horse Chestnut), Aralia, Chaenomeles (Flowering Quince), Eryngium (Sea Holly), Papaver (Poppy), Romneya
(Californian Poppy) and Spiraea can be propagated by taking root cuttings.
During the dormant season, many species such as acanthus (bear's britches), aesculus (horse chestnut), aralia, chaenomeles (flowering quince), eryngium (sea holly), papaver (poppy), romneya
(Californian poppy) and spiraea canbepropagatedbytaking root cuttings.