Wheel running alters serotonin (5-HT) transporter, 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and alpha 1b-adrenergic receptor mRNA in the rat raphe nuclei
Virtually every brain structure receives innervation from the locus coeruleus and the raphe nuclei
," said Dr Blier.
The locus ceruleus and the raphe nuclei
appear to have modulatory influences on the activity of the cerebral cortex.
Fibers emanate from clusters of serotonin-producing nerve cells -- primarily regions called the raphe nuclei
-- along the mid-line of the brain stem.
Previous studies have also suggested that the LHb has a close functional connection with several structures implicated in sleep homeostasis, including the preoptic hypothalamus, the raphe nuclei
, and the pineal gland [27-29].
For example, the dorsal raphe nuclei
and the medial raphe nuclei
in the brainstem play a role in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.
With BSE-L, the staining was finer and essentially confined to the habenular, geniculate, and dorsal nuclei of the thalamus; the lateral hypothalamus; the lacunosom moleculare layer of the hippocampus; the superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus; and the raphe nuclei
of the brain stem.