The collecting ducts communicate with the Wolffian ducts along the entire length of the pelvic kidneys in the Proteidae (Chase, 1923; Rosenquist and Baker, 1967) and Sirenidae (Willett, 1965).
2005) or the recovery of the Cryptobranchidae + Hynobiidae clade as the basal salamander lineage and the Sirenidae as the sister taxon to Proteidae (results in a paraphyletic Salamandroidea; Struck, 2007).
Collecting ducts that do not communicate along the length of the Wolffian ducts adjacent to the pelvic kidneys (character 1, state 1) evolved either once on the branch leading to all salamanders, excluding the Sirenidae (with secondary loss in the Proteidae; character 1, state 0), or evolved independently on the branches leading to the Cryptobranchidae + Hynobiidae and the Salamandroidea excluding the Proteidae.
A fusion of dt 3 and dt 4 (dt 3 + 4, table 3) is present in the proteid Necturus, and an amalgamation of f and i (f + i, table 3) is the standard pattern for the Proteidae
(Schaeffer 1941), Amphiumidae (Rabl 1910), and several plethodontid genera with miniaturized limbs (Wake and Elias 1983; Hanken 1985).
tigrinum tigrinum Eastern tiger salamander X X X Unisexual Ambystoma X X X Plethodontidae Hemidactylium scutatum Four-toed salamander X X Plethodon cinereus Red-backed salanuuulrr X X X Proteidae
Necturus maculosus Mudpuppy X Salamandridae Notophthalmus Eastern newt X X X viridescens viridescens Anura Bufonidae Bufo americanus American toad X X X B.
CLASS AMPHIBIA Order Caudata (salamanders) Family Cryptobranchidae (hellbenders) Crytobranchus alleganiensis (Daudin) hellbender S Family Proteidae
(mudpuppies) Necturus macidosus (Rafinesque), mudpuppy I Family Ambystomatidae (mole salamanders) Ambystoma barbouri Kraus & Petranka, streamside SE salamander A.