When Pope Urban II
delivers his belligerent 1095 sermon calling for a crusade, he lambasts a 'filthy race' occupying Christian ground.
"Deus lo Vult!" or "God wills it!" was the call from Pope Urban II
to all Christians to crusade to free the Holy Land from the clutches of Islam.
However, Pope Urban II
's call for holy war against Islam to win Jerusalem back led to the Normans embarking on the First Crusade.
But he tells how Pope Urban II
's call to holy war against Islam to win Jerusalem back led to the Normans embarking on the First Crusade, leaving a rift between Christianity and Islam which is still being felt today.
The sermon of Pope Urban II
in 1095 continues to echo today.
Within this larger framework, Whalen fits the story of the Crusades, from the first--launched by Pope Urban II
at the Council of Clermont in 1095, which achieved the capture of Jerusalem--to the abortive fifth (1213-1221)--which bogged down in Egypt.
Rightfully alarmed and fearing civilizational annihilation, Byzantine emperor Alexius I in Constantinople reaches out to a rival, Pope Urban II
, for aid.
Jonathan Phillips looks at the ways in which an idea promoted by Pope Urban II
at the end of the 11th century has been adopted and adapted over the centuries to various ends, good and ill.
Pope Urban II
ordered the First Crusade in 1095 to establish Christian control of the Holy Land.
In reading this "call to duty," I am eerily reminded of Pope Urban II
's appeal to the Franks in 1096.
It was the Byzantine loss of so much of the Eastern Christian heartland of Anatolia to the Seljuk Turks in 1071 that prompted Emperor Alexius I to seek help in his fight against the Turks from his estranged Christian brother in the West, Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II
(1042-99), once a monk there, wrote of Cluny that it "shines as another sun over the earth."
In the year 1095, Pope Urban II
called for Christian soldiers to war with Muslim Turks and reclaim the holy city of Jerusalem, offering full penance for those that did, ushering in a series of military campaigns known as the Crusades.
Could this be a reminder that Islam conquered most of Asia and Africa through God-fearing traders who spread God's words by being the best examples of the true faithful?Was Pope Urban II
a saint when he ordered Christian armies to march to the holy land?