Individuals were always pooled within either gap (Claoxylon indicum, Pipturus argenteus, Schefflera elliptica) or understory plots (all other species).
In gaps, the four most common species recorded on the exclusion plots comprised 85% of all seedlings (Schefflera, Claoxylon, Pipturus, and Syzygium; [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4C OMITTED], and except for Syzygium, were also common on the control plots [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4D OMITTED].
Most (76%) Pipturus seedlings emerged at similar densities across the three gap exclusion plots in February and March 1990, but its high relative frequency on the gap control plots was due almost entirely to its emergence on one plot in a single germination pulse in January 1991.
For example, virtually no seedlings of Maclura, Claoxylon, Schefflera, and Pipturus survived for more than one census on the control plots [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURES 5E-H OMITTED], but survived relatively well on the exclusion plots.
- Red crabs had a strong negative effect on the survivorship of most species transplanted in the understory and in gaps, varying from a strong (e.g., Cryptocarya, Terminalia, Tristiropsis, Leea, and Melochia) to a severe impact (e.g., Planchonella, Melia, Pisonia, Schefflera, and Pipturus; P [less than] 0.01 in all cases, Table 3).