In this way, the only tetrapod clades exhibiting "clear" Laurasian affinities are the frog families Pelobatidae and Discoglossidae (but see BAJPAI, 2010).
The Pelobatidae were first reported by SAHNI et al.
richmondi Netting & Mittleman, ravine SE salamander Pseudotriton ruber (Sonnini), northern red SC salamander Family Sirenidae (sirens) Siren intermedia LeConte, lesser siren W Order Anura (toads and frogs) Family Pelobatidae
(spadefoot toads) Scaphiopus holbrookii (Harlan), eastern spadefoot S Family Bufonidae (toads) Bufo americanus Holbrook, American toad N,C,SE B.
Many modern families and genera of anurans make their first appearance in North America during the Miocene, including Bufo, Rana, Pelobatidae
, and Hylidae, Many families of lizards occur, including Iguanidae (sensu lato), Scincidae, Teiidae, Anguidne, Helodermatidae, Xantusiidae, and Rhineuridae.
Key words: adaptive plasticity; amphibian; comparative studies; ephemeral environment; growth rate; habitat desiccation; larval development; metamorphosis; Pelobatidae
, Scaphiopus; spadefoot toads.