When critical pedagogists
speak of social action, we assume that social movements are a primary option.
The "Whose Culture" experience of interviewing students and families and comparing the culture of the school with the culture of the home empowers pedagogists
to better build relevancy and build a bridge to negotiate passage between home and school culture, a process Eugene Garcia (1994) identifies as scaffolding.
This is absolutely necessary in order for educators to become skilled culturally responsive pedagogists
, yet, the expectation that teachers prioritize this places one more responsibility on them in a teaching context in which teachers are already tragically overburdened with large class sizes and administrative responsibilities that, increasingly, are dictated by high stakes testing and curriculum standardization (Darling-Hammond, 1997; Murrell, 2001; Nieto, 2000; Nieto & Bode, 2007).
One of the trends that is in vogue with the current generation of pedagogists
is "discovery-based" or "problem-based" learning (Ritual and Stieglitz 2000; Johnson 2006), however, in science it is unrealistic to expect students to discover their way to thermodynamics, atomic theory, plate tectonics, genetics and so on (Gross et al.
Since this line of "effectiveness" research proved to be so fruitful in the physical education setting (see Metzler, 1989 and Silverman, 1991 for reviews of this research), a few sport pedagogists
have tried to use the same behavioristic model in the athletic setting.
Thus we must turn to critical reflection in the sense that it used by critical pedagogists
In support of this, the overall ratio of positive to negative to neutral comments was approximately 4:3:2, which demonstrates a higher ratio of negative comments than that which is normally recommended by pedagogists