47) Jorden named too little menstruation as one cause of suffocation of the mother, whereby "the matrix is drawne upwards or sidewards" and even in Hester's collection of Paracelsian
remedies, a large number mention the danger of retained menses.
Although it is not easy to categorize the papers, familiar themes and issues are well presented: the problem of the comprehensibility of alchemical language, the nature of laboratory practice, debates between Paracelsians
and both Galenists and mechanists, the difficulty of uncloaking alchemical charlatans and fraud, and the challenges of textual exegesis.
Music retained a privileged status in Hermetic writings: in particular, courtly Paracelsians
continued to be deeply interested in music for at least the next century, and several important musical figures were attracted to occult thought.
Knoeff documents a shift in Boerhaave's thinking from his early Institutiones medicae (1708), which was influenced by Robert Boyle's corpuscularian chemistry and the mechanics of inertia and attraction in Newton's Principia, to emphasize more the chemical attractions and repulsions that are found in Newton's Opticks, and eventually to abandon mechanical philosophy for a more Paracelsian
metaphysics of seminal agencies that act directly on bodies from within them.
He notes that limiting it to those who called themselves Paracelsians
is too restrictive and oversimplifies Paracelsus's influence, but including all who used chemical medicines too broad, for Galenists incorporated the use of chemicals into their philosophy.
Thus, he had an orthodox academic Galenist dislike of alchemists and Paracelsians
, evident in his insistence that Arnald of Villanova was not "a miserable and vagabond chemist" but "the most learned physician of his time.
In my view, the book's greatest limitation is its failure to tease out ideological divisions or at least points of controversy in the seventeenth century, as for example those that existed between the conception of the physician-priest (29) and secular notions of the physician, between believers in the usefulness of astrology to curing and physicians skeptical of astrology, or between Galenists and Paracelsians
The debate grew particularly acrimonious when it became clear that many Paracelsians
were also Protestants, and when Montpellier, Paris's chief rival, emerged as a center of both heresies.
As will become clear in this review, Campanella can also be considered a practitioner of the Paracelsian
chemical philosophy that stretched down to Sir Isaac Newton and the Scientific Revolution.
Illustrated with symbolic engravings, these books constructed a complicated rhetoric out of a blend of alchemy, Paracelsian
theosophy, Hermeticism, and Christian Kabbalah.