Reference-specific gravities for each species (jack pine 420 kg/[m.sup.3], white spruce 350 kg/[m.sup.3], and Pacific silver fir 340 kg/[m.sup.3]) were used to convert results from weight per weight CuO to give weight per volume (kilograms per cubic meter) of the formulation assuming a 2:1 CuO/quat ratio.
Eight-foot (2.4-m)-long 2 by 4-inch (38 by 89-mm) kiln-dried boards of jack pine, Pacific silver fir, and white spruce No.
The mesic sites were represented by the HwBa-Blueberry site series (Ba = Pacific silver fir
Eight-foot 2 by 6-inch kiln-dried boards containing a mix of sapwood and heartwood were obtained for three species: Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis Dougl.
This was a formulation C-treated Pacific silver fir sample, rated 9.
Recent studies in Canada have demonstrated the effectiveness of surface profiling at reducing the surface checking of Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) and Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes) deck boards exposed to natural weathering (McFarling and Morris 2005, Morris and McFarling 2008, McFarling et al.
Boards obtained from six different trees for each species (Pacific silver fir and southern pine) provided replication at the higher level.
It was noted, however, that preservative penetrations were much deeper in Pacific silver fir than in white spruce.
Generally the MCs of the Pacific silver fir samples were at the high end of the range and the white spruce and western redcedar samples were at the low end.
Kiln-dried western white spruce (nominal 2 by 4), air-dried Douglas-fir (nominal 2 by 4), selected for maximum heartwood, and air-dried western hemlock and Pacific silver fir
(95 by 95 mm) were cut into end-matched sub-samples.
From the Ding Darling National Wildlife Refuge in Florida, where the red mangrove presides, to Olympic National Park in Washington, home of the Pacific silver fir
, our public lands are a great place to grow up if you want to be a champ.
The Olympics are also home to the biggest western hemlock, subalpine and Pacific silver fir
, Alaska-cedar, and Englemana spruce.
Six replicate blocks from the sapwood of southern yellow pine (Pinus spp.) and six blocks from either heartwood or sapwood of Pacific silver fir
(Abies amabilis) were used as reference nondecay-resistant softwoods with each fungus.
For example: western and mountain hemlock, grand fir, Pacific silver fir
, and noble fir make up a "group sort," while Ponderosa pine is in a group by itself.
As the trail descends and the rain lets up, I'm surprised to see Pacific silver firs
punching dark-green triangles out of the eroded valley below.