The shift by cancer cells from OxPhos
(oxidative phosphorylation) to glycolysis, even under normoxic conditions, is called the Warburg effect.
Intriguingly, the glycolytic surge in early activations of DCs does not employ ATP for additional necessary bioenergetic resources as compared to the T cells that primarily count on mitochondrial OXPHOS
necessary for their activation [70, 71].
Expression of OXPHOS
Complexes and Porin Differs between Intestinal and Diffuse-Type Gastric Carcinomas.
MJ-induced ATP depletion was independent of pyruvate (an OxPhos
substrate) and oligomycin (an OxPhos
inhibitor) , but it was inhibited by glucose (a glycolysis substrate); nonetheless, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (a glycolysis inhibitor) synergistically enhanced the anticancer effect of MJ  (Table 3).
Therefore, we measured patient fibroblasts with various known OXPHOS
The electron transport through the RC complex from NADH to oxygen molecule results in release of free energy which is utilized for the production of ATP in OXPHOS
. (60) The importance of OXPHOS
has been studied by using mitochondrial inhibitors.
Mitra, "Differential modulation of mitochondrial OXPHOS
system during HIV-1 induced T-cell apoptosis: up regulation of Complex-IV subunit COX-II and its possible implications," Apoptosis, vol.
In case of OXPHOS
, it has been shown that complexes of the respiratory chain can form assemblies--supercomplexes--that lead to kinetic and possibly homeostatic advantages .
The citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle) then takes over inside the mitochondria to convert the acetyl-CoA into the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and the reduced form of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2), which are important in a process known as oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS
As a first step in the cytosol, glucose is converted into pyruvate and then subsequently used in the mitochondria in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle leading to ATP production through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS
) in the ETC.
Mitochondria generate most of the energy necessary for cellular function via oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS
) as well as contribute to metabolism, [Ca.sup.2+] signaling, and apoptosis.
MEGS enzymes are localized in the mitochondrial matrix space [pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle] and in the mitochondrial inner membrane [oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS
Acetyl-CoA molecules derived from glucose, glutamine, or fatty acid metabolism enter in the TCA cycle and are converted into C[O.sub.2], NADH, and [FADH.sub.2] during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS
occurs through passing electrons along a series of carrier molecules, called the electron transport chain, with the help of electron carriers, such as NAD(P)H and [FADH.sub.2], that serve as substrate to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the mitochondrial matrix [51, 52].
Unlike oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS
), which generates 36 ATP from the oxidation of glucose, glycolysis generates only 4 molecules of ATP.