A thorough literature survey reveals that relatively little work on the oxidation of oxoacids have been reported so far [13,14].
Freshly prepared solutions of oxoacids in purified acetic acid were used to avoid any possible side reactions.
Autoantibodies against the mitochondrial oxoacid dehydrogenase E2 subunits are virtually 100% specific for PBC [41, 42].
In addition to antibodies against mitochondrial oxoacid dehydrogenase E2 subunits, some individuals with PBC also have other specific autoantibodies, e.g., as mentioned above, against gp210.
In addition to oxoacid dehydrogenases and gp210 autoantigens in PBC, several other proteins have been identified as autoantigens in liver diseases, and for some the immunodominant epitopes have also been determined.
Type of autoantibody Anti-mitochondrial Anti-nuclear E2 subunit of pyruvate Nuclear pore membrane dehydrogenase complex protein gp210 E2 subunits of other oxoacid Intranuclear protein dehydrogenases Sp100 "Designer" recombinant molecules Inner nuclear membrane constructed with predominant protein LBR autoepitopes of the above Table 3.
When exposed to ionizing radiation in the form of high-energy electrons to simulate the cosmic rays in space, multiple phosphorus oxoacids like phosphoric acid and diphosphoric acid were synthesized via non-equilibrium reactions.
"But in the interstellar medium, an exotic phosphine chemistry can promote rare chemical reaction pathways to initiate the formation of biorelevant molecules such as oxoacids of phosphorus, which eventually might spark the molecular evolution of life as we know it."
Kaiser added, "The phosphorus oxoacids detected in our experiments by combination of sophisticated analytics involving lasers, coupled to mass spectrometers along with gas chromatographs, might have also been formed within the ices of comets such as 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, which contains a phosphorus source believed to derive from phosphine." Kaiser says these techniques can also be used to detect trace amounts of explosives and drugs.
formed in the transaminase reactions were measured indirectly by enzymatic reduction to their corresponding hydroxyacids.
The oxidative cleavage yields oxoacids
, aldehydes, and allyl alcohols [15,25].
Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of urinary oxoacids
using 0-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) oxime-trimethylsilyl ester derivatization and cation-exchange chromatography.