After the collapse of the Silk Road, which was mainly a land trade route, Ottoman Turkey
was devoid of a lively commerce and substantial income.
The last officially-recognised Sunni caliphate used to be held by Ottoman Turkey
Even though the third Bulgarian state was technically restored in 1878, for the first 30 years of its existence it was a tributary principality to Ottoman Turkey
, until complete independence was achieved on September 22, 1908.
KM Greg Sarkissian, president of the US-based Zoryan Research Institute, responds to comments made by Turkish prime minister, Tayyip Erdogan, on April 23, the eve of the day Armenians commemorate the genocide by Ottoman Turkey
is alive as far as the successor of the Ottoman Turkey
continues its policy of utter denial," he said.
Defeated by more numerous, more disciplined and technologically superior forces, Abd el-Kader was forced to surrender and accept exile, first in France, later in Ottoman Turkey
and finally in Syria.
High diplomacy between Iran and Ottoman Turkey
was conducted as religious polemic.
As Archbishop of Buenos Aires, then-Cardinal Bergoglio described the killing and forced deportation of millions of Armenians as "the gravest crime of Ottoman Turkey
against the Armenian people and all of humanity" (ibid).
Although in the eighteenth century Mary Wortley Montagu described Turkish culture contemptuously, she also interprets women's position in Ottoman Turkey
in some ways "enviable" at least implicitly: "this perpetual masquerade gives them entire liberty of following their inclinations without danger of discovery.
In the subsequent decades and centuries, Jews fleeing persecution from other states found refuge in Ottoman Turkey
Relations with neighbour, Turkey, are also fraught because Ankara does not recognise the killing of Armenians in Ottoman Turkey
during World War One as genocide.
Because they dazzled with a hue sacred to Islam, emeralds were prized in the courts of Mughal India, Safavid Persia, and Ottoman Turkey
during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
If Armenians were discriminated in Ottoman Turkey
, it is difficult to believe that Armenians like Migirdic Shabanyan could have held such high level positions.
On touring the museum in two-and-a-half hours, visitors will find priceless exhibits such as the curtain for the door of the Holy Kaaba in Makkah Al Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia dated after 1985; lampas silk and gold tunic from Iran or Central Asia dated 13th-14the century AD; enameled jewellery from Jaipur in India, 18th-19th century; gilt copper candlestick, from Ottoman Turkey
, 15th-16th century; and lustre plate with leaping quadruped, from either Iraq or possibly Egypt, 9th-10the century.
It was banned in Ottoman Turkey
during the 17th century for political reasons, and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe.