When Palestine emerged as a separate geopolitical entity from the larger Ottoman Empire, the people who lived in it and whose ancestors inhabited the region since antiquity were denied the right to have their own state, as was the case with the other regions of the former Ottoman sultanate
Mayor rightly stresses the unique character of Mithradates' 'Black Sea Empire'--something which would not occur again until the ascendancy of the Ottoman sultanate
in the fifteenth century CE.
For one, the Ottoman Sultanate
used to be considered the Orient, despite the fact that it included a pretty large chunk of Europe.
In the Arab, including Palestinian, lands of the Ottoman Sultanate
until 1917/18 and, to a lesser degree, well into the late 1940s, conditions of deprivation, oppression, ignorance, illiteracy, poverty, misery, humiliation, backwardness and superstition, class--based discrimination and subjugation to foreign rule prevailed.
For centuries, both were subjects of the Ottoman Sultanate
, where a dominant Ottoman culture and an Ottoman mode of religiosity affected almost all of the Muslim peoples of the empire; Ottoman systems of government and justice were applied in Adana as well as in Cairo; and u lama, administrators, soldiers and merchants moved freely between various cities of the empire, but neither people identified itself in terms of the nation.
The Republic of Lebanon stands on territories that were, for several centuries, part of the Ottoman Sultanate
, and before that, from the seventh century AD, of many Islamic kingdoms commencing with the three historic Caliphates of the Rashideen, the Umayyads and the Abbasids.
But more importantly, many will be able to bring forth a document (and usually with a seal of approval from the Ottoman Sultanate
or British Mandate) bearing witness that this individual or family either purchased or are in ownership of this land or property.
Most of the Middle East was part of the Ottoman sultanate
, the last of the great Muslim empires.
The last Sunni caliphate fell with the toppling of the last Ottoman sultanate
in Turkey in the early 1930s.
A generation before Lewis's visit to Turkey, Ataturk (the last name, which he adopted, means "father of all Turks"), had seized control of the dying Ottoman Sultanate
At this point the eastern empire supposedly ceased to be a world power; like its successor, the Ottoman sultanate
-- eventually to become the Sick Man of Europe -- Byzantium sinks slowly in the east, desperate, degenerate, and impotent.