Abbe (1935) interpreted the involucre in Corylus as developed from two connate tertiary bracts, and that in Ostryopsis, Carpinus, and Ostiya as derived from the fusion of the secondary and tertiary bracts.
Nevertheless, at the primordial stage three flower areas can be seen in the cyme of Ostryopsis, Carpinus, and Ostrya, although the boundary between flowers is unclear at maturation.
Our observations show that in pistillate flowers, tepals are adnate to the top of the ovary in Corylus, Ostryopsis, Carpinus, and Ostrya, and develop from one circular primordium, making it difficult to determine the number of tepals, albeit with lobes at maturation (Table 3).
(2001) found that the two primordia of the bicarpellate gynoecia in a cyme are parallel to each other during early developmental stages in Carpinus and Ostryopsis. In this study, we also observe a parallel arrangement of young carpels in Alnus and Corylus (Figs.
There are two main clades in the family: Betuloideae (Aims and Betula) and Coryloideae (Corylus, Ostryopsis, Carpinus, and Ostrya) or Betuleae and Coryleae (Crane, 1989; Bousquet et al., 1992; Savard et ah, 1993; Chen, 1994a, b; Chen et ah, 1999; Laroche & Bousquet, 1999; Forest et ah, 2005; Grimm & Renner, 2013).
In Coryloideae, Ostryopsis, Carpinus, and Ostiya are crown lineages in Betulaceae with many derived characters, such as more winter scales of bud for cold habitat, pollen tube entering the stigma only via papillae (Fig.
The embryology of the genus Ostryopsis (Betulaccae).
Morphogenesis of pistillate reproductive organs in Carpinus turezaninowii and Ostryopsis davidiana (Bctulaceae).