Identification of endogenous peptide ligands (6,7) that bind to their complementary receptors followed and they were termed, respectively, opioid peptides
and opioid receptors.
The synchronous increase of neuropeptides and NK cells agrees with many studies in the area of neuroimmunomodulation research (16,17) and the finding that there is secretion of opioid peptides
The mechanism of action may involve a reduction of endogenous opioid peptide
actions that normally promote increases in dopamine release (Gonzales and Weiss 1998).
Pharmacological studies (Gianoulakis 2004; Oswald and Wand 2004) using subtype-specific antagonists show that the key element in opioid peptide
systems involved in the positive reinforcing effects of alcohol is the [mu]-opioid receptor.
, such as the "endorphins" that Nobex will be using are involved in the natural pain reducing systems within the brains of humans.
can cause decrease in LH pulse frequency.
The research on the mechanism of acupuncture analgesia shows that acupuncture may cause nervous system to release opioid peptides
with analgesic effect.
In CKD-associated pruritus, it is believed that there exists an imbalance between the endogenous opioid peptides
that stimulate and inhibit pruritus pathways (Patel et al.
neurotransmitters) and their receptors, including opioid peptides
Steroidal modulation of the regulatory neuropeptides: luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, neuropeptide Y and endogenous opioid peptides
In joints, endogenous opioid peptides
have been identified in human inflamed synovium, where they are thought to act on intraarticular opioid receptors to reduce joint pain (15).
Receptors for brain molecules known as opioid peptides
help initiate the neurochemical reactions that underlie the positive effects produced by alcohol.
The NTDDS based candidate drug NP2 Enkephalin has been engineered to deliver the human Enkephalin gene, which naturally produces opioid peptides
involved in pain control.
Our novel synthetic chemistry applied to naturally occurring enkephalin opioid peptides
enable us to impart small-molecule, drug-like properties to peptides.
Endogenous opioid peptides
, such as beta-endorphin and enkephalin, function to inhibit pain and they are also the 'feel good' substances that are released following high levels of exercise or love.