In respondent learning, the conditioning of reflexive responses introduced particular measurements and methods not used in operant learning
Even so, most language researchers discount any important role for operant learning
in speech perception or production.
The fact that the caregivers in both studies were able to use response-contingent learning games to promote the children's acquisition of contingency behavior was not unexpected since more than 30 of years of research has produced evidence demonstrating the fact that children with multiple disabilities and profound developmental delays are capable of operant learning
(see Dunst, 2003; Dunst & Lesko, 1988; Dunst et al.
However, because the subject may not sense the signal, or signal variations may be too slight to be felt at first, EMG feedback is used to provide the "reinforced stimulus" necessary for operant learning
While training the dogs, my partner and I (many students chose to train the dogs in groups of two) discussed the principles of operant learning
we were using to elicit positive behaviors from the dogs.
Our "Behavior Science Unit" contains a variety of teacher and student activities aimed at demonstrating and teaching fundamental operant learning
principles and procedures.
Early studies on operant learning
have shown that exposure to schedules of reinforcement will generate characteristic patterns of responding, depending on the schedule in effect (Ferster & Skinner, 1957).
Indeed, operant learning
capabilities are a result of natural selection (Skinner, 1971, 1981).
This article reviews the development of EMG biofeedback as a tool for operant learning
, including the development of surface EMG biofeedback and support for the use of such biofeedback for treating dysphonias and related voice disorders.
They are an introduction, modern development theory, behavioral genetics, prenatal, birth and post natal periods, habituation and respondent learning, operant learning
, cognitive development, development of communication, personality and self, social and emotional development, development of antisocial behavior, the family system, schools, adolescence, and behavioral disorders of childhood.
During the 1960s and 1970s in mainstream psychology and rehabilitation, applied behavior analysis - operant learning
- was highly influential in shaping the evolution of treatment procedures, especially for populations with severe disabilities, such as those with MR or severe and persistent mental disorders (SPMD) whose social adjustment needs had not been well addressed by more conventional therapies in rehabilitation settings.
The preceding sections were intended to illustrate the dynamic interaction among respondent and operant learning
functions that likely modulate drug abuse.
Keywords: Response-contingent stimulation, response-independent stimulation, child operant learning
, concomitant child behavior, efficiency
This paper reviews the recent parent training research in which parents are taught to use principles of operant learning
as well as general principles of positive verbal discourse.
In fact, a technology of teaching verbal behavior based generally on the science of operant learning
and specifically on Skinner's analysis has already been developed.