and Russia if it includes a ban on Russian steel "produced by facilities using child labor, outdated environmentally destructive open hearth furnaces
, or work forces not being paid their just wages.
The intricate web of steelmaking that had lined the banks of the Monongahela River since the days of Andrew Carnegie--the coal barges, coke ovens, blast furnaces, and open hearth furnaces
, and the rolling mills, plate mills, wire mills--were all shuttered and closed.
Shotton steel was made by 12 open hearth furnaces
which each consumed 650 gallons of heavy fuel oil per hour and each made 250 tonnes of steel in about 8 or 9 hours.
Bill Parry wrote: The workers feeding the furnaces remind me of the open hearth furnaces
at Grangetown, which I helped demolish in the Sixties with a firm called Road Materials.