Ravindranatha et al., (2001) suggested that fetal calf serum improves the fertilization capacity of oocytes because it prevents the action of certain proteolytic enzymes, in turn, prevent hardening of zona pellucida.
Pre-IVM with N6,2E1-O-dibutyryladenosine 3a2,5a2-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) for 2 h improved the blastocyst formation in oocytes stimulated by FSH or amphiregulin (AREG) (Sugimura et al, 2017).
Follicular atresia is a widespread degenerative process in the vertebrate ovary, by which the majority of oocytes at varying stages in their development are lost other than ovulation (Guraya and Greenwald, 1964; Wood and van der Kraak, 2001; Vieyra et al., 2008; Valdebnito et al., 2011; Morais et al., 2012; Wildner et al., 2013; Privalikhin et al., 2015; Senerat et al., 2015; Hannon and Flaws, 2015).
Based on the morphological changes in the ooplasm and surrounding follicular layers, tree main phases of atretic oocytes (Atresia in the Primary growth phase, atresia in the secondary growth phase and atresia in the maturation and hydration phase) were identified.
It is obvious that, all of the oocytes retrieved in an IVF cycle are not mature, regardless of the chosen IVF protocol.
Pregnancy after in vitro fertilization of human follicular oocytes collected from nonstimulated cycles, their culture in vitro and their transfer in a donor oocyte program.
Accumulation of oocytes
: a new strategy for managing low-responder patients.
, in order to understand the mechanism of viability loss and to develop methods to ensure gamete longevity.
Then after ovulation induction using the antagonist protocol the response to ovulation induction was determined by number of follicles restored (number of follicles produced as a result of ovarian stimaulation), quality of oocytes
retrieved was noted (analysis of various aspects of oocyte
morphology, cytoplasm, zona pellucid and polar body via conventional phase contrast microscoy had generated a criteria of good, moderate and bad quality oocytes
), also the oocytes
fertilized and inseminated were noted.
surrounded by at least three compact cumulus layers and had uniform ooplasm were selected for the next step.
santolla ovaries are of three main types: oogonia, oocytes
in different stages of development and follicle cells.
It was believed that patients with PCOS could achieve similar or even higher pregnancy rates than other patients, as long as the oocytes
quality didn't diminish.8 However, some studies had suggested that the oocytes
' quality of PCOS was poor and the fertilisation rate was decreased.9 Studies comparing the IVF outcomes of PCOS with non-PCOS individuals generally did not consider the effects of BMI,10 and only a few studies have considered the interaction between obesity and PCOS,11 exploring if there was any difference in IVF outcome when PCOS and obesity existed simultaneously or separately, or if the outcome was affected by the increased incidence of obesity in PCOS patients or PCOS itself.
It was decided to shift from own oocytes
to donated oocytes
This process, called apoptosis, is triggered in oocytes
by the protein p63.
One of the main problems of mature oocytes
(MII) freezing is meiotic spindles sensitivity to low temperatures and cryoprotectants.