This information was used to construct industry averages of price and non-price competition
on the three-digit industry level (NACE Revision 2).
The size of the mark-up also features prominently in the literature on non-price competition
and barriers to entry discussed below, with product differentiation and barriers combining to determine the gap between cost and price that can be maintained without attracting entry into a market.
Concerns about non-price competition
focuses mostly on R&D and patents, and somewhat less on advertising, sales promotion, and productivity.
First, although it is sometimes thought that non-price competition
will dissipate profits in the Klein-Leffler model, the model does not by itself have that implication.
assumes that hospitals compete for admitting physicians - and thus indirectly with other hospitals in the area since the total local supply of physicians can be assumed to be fixed, at least in the short run - and patients using such non-price variables as the quality of hospital services offered and the availability of hospital beds, i.
Competitive conduct -- which includes pricing policies and response to competitors' pricing moves, non-price competition
and `multi-point' competition or cross-subsidization among segments, products, or activities.
These firms will emphasize non-price competition
, reducing their allocations for R&D, especially those devoted to new product development.
In their classic study, George Douglas and James Miller found that "while even the largest [airline] markets contain only a small number of firms in direct competition, vigorous non-price competition
seems to be pervasive.
More important, non-price competition
is also at work.
If a product has many non-price dimensions, vertical restraints other than RPM will have to be in place to prevent non-price competition
among cartel members (Telser 1960).
The impact and importance of branding in the B2C market with non-price competition
playing a significant role
In doing so, he takes attention away from the fact that whereas Schumpeter saw entrepreneurial activity as primarily being concerned with innovation-based non-price competition
that upsets the established order, Kirzner focusses essentially on entrepreneurs as equilibrating arbitrageurs.
It is crucial that the level of activity in the automotive sector is maximised and the price and non-price competition
is raised in order for the industry to remain buoyant during this slump in the world economy.
Chapter 4 investigates the importance of non-price competition
in relation to exports and imports.
in the Cigarette Industry", The Antitrust Bulletin, XIV, 1969, pp.