commissioned many notable services, not only for himself but also as gifts.
Similarly, Nicholas I
decreed the creation of a Rabbinical Commission in 1848, but it never became a permanent institution and met only six times by 1910.
Using materials from the Russian State Historical Archive and other archival and special holdings, Yohanan Petrovsky-Shtern traces the history of Jews in the Russian army from its beginnings under Nicholas I
through the end of tsarism.
Though the university reforms of 1804 and 1863 serve as its chronological bookends, the study's focus is on the reign of Nicholas I
4 percent under Nicholas I
, Alexander II, Alexander III, and Nicholas II respectively.
Wortman describes in detail the changing pomp that marked coronations, tsarist name days, triumphal occasions, military and religious holidays, tsarist visits, and funerals during the century and one-half that ended with the death of Nicholas I
Roberts argues that Nicholas I
intervened in Hungary because he feared that the revolution would spread to Russia (by way of Galicia), not simply because he defended the monarchical principle in Europe.