is a part of the treatment modality used to downstage the disease in rectal carcinoma, so that a curative resection can be possible.
The mean number of lymph nodes decreases with age [11, 18, 26-28], from proximal to distal segments of bowel [2, 8, 10, 18, 29-31], and with the use of neoadjuvant therapy
Moreover, based on the immune modulating ability of trastuzumab, the evaluation of TIL levels/immune markers in the residual disease after neoadjuvant therapy
and their alteration from the baseline could add relevant information on the pharmacodynamic modulation of the immune microenvironment by trastuzumab.
The neoadjuvant therapy
started with Imatinib, with weekly clinical follow-up.
Stearns, "Neoadjuvant therapy
for early-stage breast cancer: Current practice, controversies, and future directions," ONCOLOGY (United States), vol.
"As part of the so-called neoadjuvant therapy
, the risk of metastases or the recurrence of tumours could be reduced prior to the surgical removal of the tumour."
[29.] Caudle AS, Yang WT, Krishnamurthy S, et al Improved axillary evaluation following neoadjuvant therapy
for patients with node-positive breast cancer using selective evaluation of clipped nodes: Implementation of targeted axillary dissection.
The evaluation of CD44v6 immunoexpression in cervical carcinomas is useful for the assessment of tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy
and of tumor aggressive behavior.
Pathologic complete response (pCR) is usually defined as absence of residual invasive cancer in breast and lymph nodes in surgical specimens after neoadjuvant therapy
. It is considered an important prognostic factor and is associated with long-term survival.
has been shown to have beneficial effects and seems necessary to provide a survival benefit.
In pancreatic cancer, a complete pathologic response is associated with improved survival, yet a complete pathologic response following neoadjuvant therapy
in LAPC is rarely reported [11,12].
Ki67, chemotherapy response and prognosis in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy
. BMC Cancer.
 With advancement in the field of mammography, neo-adjuvant therapy, and breast conservation surgery in breast carcinoma, cytology grading can be used for selection of neoadjuvant therapy
. It allows the assessment of tumors without any surgical intervention so that the morbidity associated with overtreatment of low-grade tumors can be avoided.
It is indicated as adjuvant therapy post complete surgical resection in patients with tumours that are stratified to be high risk and as neoadjuvant therapy
, with the goal of tumour shrinkage prior to surgical resection.7
Of the 39 patients who were clinically node negative, 4 had neoadjuvant therapy
followed by surgery, and 35 went on to primary surgery.