The results show that that in expressing response to friend with same gender, the respondents preferred the very high use of bald on record politeness strategy (N = 110, 57 %) with low use of all other strategies while in responding to friend with opposite gender, the respondents used all used all strategies except negative politeness
(which was used low) with moderate frequency.
(13) The notion of face and the concept of positive and negative politeness
were introduced by Brown and Levinson (1987).
In terms of Brown & Levinson's (1987) approach, this would be a bold-on-record strategy without any use of positive or negative politeness
. She presents her request almost like a deal: If you kiss me, I will no longer disturb you.
In the same vein, in social interactions, negative politeness
strategies are devised to inform others of speaker's intention to protect their negative face needs, i.e., showing respect to others' space.
Effect of request type and situational features on negative politeness
strategies involve carrying out a speech act that threatens face, called a face-threatening act--such as when a tutor makes a suggestion or states a criticism--but simultaneously acknowledging the interlocutor's (the student's) want to be independent and free from imposition (131).
Levinson (Brown, Levinson 1987: 193), differentiates between positive and negative politeness
; the former being friendly attitude toward the addressee, solidarity, emphasis on group identity, pursuit of agreement and conflict avoidance, the use of speech acts aiming to raise the addressee's role/status (a compliment, gratitude, invitation, etc.), the latter being fear to seem a nuisance, to hurt the addressee, lack of emotions, restraint, avoidance of speech acts that may threaten the addressee (order, criticizing, direct questions) or some mitigation of already performed "threatening act" (e.g.
They identify four politeness strategies which deal with face- threat: Baldon-Record, Negative Politeness
, Positive Politeness and Off-Record.
(1) Walter Spitz uses Brown and Levinson's politeness strategies in an analysis of the conversational interaction of the grandmother and The Misfit in "A Good Man Is Hard to Find," in part as an examination of The Misfit's use of negative politeness
to maintain socially isolated "distance from his interlocutor" (16).
A deference politeness system (negative politeness
in Brown and Levinson's terms) is one in which participants are considered to be equals or near equals but treat each other at a distance.
Brown and Levinson categorize politeness as either positive politeness or negative politeness
and tie both strategies to the importance of face in every culture.
In the framework of Brown and Levinson's (1987) politeness theory, the conditional relates primarily to negative politeness
, aimed at keeping a distance between the speakers.
The results drawn from the above analysis coincide with the comparative research on Spanish-English politeness: Spanish tends towards positive politeness, whereas English is a culture of negative politeness
. Present-day Spanish linguists justify Spanish positive politeness in many ways.