# natural logarithm

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## Synonyms for natural logarithm

### a logarithm to the base e

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The advantages pointed out by Keene (1995) must also be considered when using data transformed to natural logarithm compared with untransformed data.
The measurement unit used for the model estimations is represented by the natural logarithms in billion lei.
Because the response variable in each case was the ratio of the natural logarithm of raw counts in successive years, we used as independent variables the ratios of the natural logarithms of the putative explanatory variables in those same 2 years.
j,t] is the natural logarithm of the geographical distance between the city locations of fund j and fund i, plus one.
Loglinear analysis is an extension of the two-way contingency table where the conditional relationship between two or more discrete, categorical variables is analyzed by taking the natural logarithm of the cell frequencies within a contingency table.
By plotting the natural logarithm of K(T) as a function of the inverse temperature, the slope of the graph is proportional to the activation energy of diffusion, and the intersection of the graph with the ordinate is the proportionality factor [K.
Company size, determined to be the total assets and profitability were included in the model with their natural logarithms.
Wage differential is calculated as in equation (1) taking natural logarithm to the ratio of wages between firm (/) of industry (j) and average wage in the respective industry and the average wage of the alternative industry (k).
As mentioned earlier, since the variables included in the VAR systems are the natural logarithms of the levels of the original variables, accumulated impulse response functions can be interpreted as the elasticity or long-run effect of local headline prices to changes in international food prices (Lutkepohl and Reimers, 1992).
This study guide aids students in reviewing concepts and principles of calculus, including derivatives, natural logarithms, exponential functions, integrals, and other material from a first-year calculus course.
An interesting irrational number from the exponential series, e is the base of all natural logarithms," the Indian expatriate from Abu Dhabi said.
6) All explanatory variables are measured as annual averages over the sample period and are entered as natural logarithms unless noted otherwise.
In all cases, the basic idea is that the natural logarithms of variances are modeled using a linear model to account for heterogeneity of the variances (on a logarithmic scale) in terms of covariates and factor levels.
e] or In when we want to indicate that we are using natural logarithms.
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