The sub-fraction VS2 (2.5 g) which was subjected to repeated silica gel column chromatography eluting with n-hexane
: ethyl acetate (2.5: 7.5) to get compound 1 (21 mg).
About 15 mL of eluate was obtained using dichloromethane flow rate of 1 mL min-1, evaporated to dryness, and resulting residue was dissolved in n-hexane
(0.5 mL) prior to instrumental analysis.
In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity of Lathyrus species Methanol extracts and n-hexane
, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water fractions from the aerial parts of five Lathyrus species were investigated for their potential in vitro antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATCC 10231.
The powder was extracted sequentially with solvents (n-hexane
, chloroform, methanol and water) of increasing polarity with frequent stirring by cold maceration method.
Zingiber officinale Rosc displayed the activity with MIC value of 240 [micro]g/mL for the chloroform fraction and 690 [micro]g/mL for n-hexane
against Clostridium perfringens, a pathogen causing enterotoxenia of livestock .
A Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay (Dojindo Laboratories, Japan) were used to measure the cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract and n-hexane
, ethyl acetate and ethanolic fraction of T.
Average size of nanoparticles was calculated about 9.42nm in 2-propanol, 6.36nm in acetonitrile and 16.05nm in n-Hexane
which are close to the DLS Analysis.
While the n-hexane
fraction did not have antibacterial activity against PAMR [Table 3].
10 g of crude extract of tea mangrove was subjected to open column chromatography over silica-gel and eluted with solvents of increasing polarity from n-hexane
and ethyl acetate (50% : 50%), acetone (100%), and methanol (100%) to yield n-hexane
(10 mg), n-hexane
and ethyl acetate (900 mg), acetone (510 mg), and methanol (4240 mg) fractions, respectively (Table 2).
Finally, candidates (acetone, isopropyl alcohol, n-hexane
, and ethyl acetate) were selected based on having solvent properties similar to chloroform, including high polarity and high vapor pressure.
The primary chemicals in this research were potassium hydroxide, ethanol, isooctane, n-hexane
, and the others which were purchased from Merck (Germany) with purification more than 95%.
The solvents that were obtained from Sigma (South Africa) for extraction were n-hexane
, dichloromethane, and methanol (reagent grade).
Similar procedures were adopted for butanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane
The extraction was performed with 5 mL of chloroform, dichloromethane, n-hexane
, and ethyl acetate.
Further investigation was carried out using a fraction of n-hexane
leaf extract to study its antiosteoporotic activity in osteoporotic mice.