It was in this changing climate that the first financial incentives for conversion became law, even if they affected only elite Tatars and the Mordvins.
62) Serving as a registrar, the monastery also wrote and validated land contracts, as for the Mordvin Egchaik Kozhilanov and the local musketeers (strel'tsy).
A long-term example of this is the fourteen petitions compiled from Arzamas's Troitse-Sergeevskii Monastery on behalf one of their Mordvin villages: Gramota, [1631-93], f.
Mordvin written records have not been much treated by linguists to the present: the only person describing these texts in a monographic manner is the renowned Moksha linguist, Aleksandr Pavlovich Feoktistov ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1968a; 1971; 1976); it was also him who wrote essays about this topic ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1963; 1968b; Feoktistov 1971-1972; 1975a) and introductions to handbooks (1966: 177, 199; 1975b : 262-265; 1980: 5-8).
The present essay overviews the first period of Mordvin lexicography, from Witsen's 1692 Dutch-Mordvin glossary containing 324 words to bishop Damaskin's 1785 dictionary containing 11,000 entries.
Issues of Mordvin neologistic tendencies are treated with special attention--novel words appearing chiefly in the dictionary of Damaskin (and his colleagues) are described with particular care.
A Dutch scholar, Nicolaes Witsen (1641-1717) did pioneering work in the field of Mordvin lexicography.
Witsen provides the Mordvin data in Roman letters, using spelling rules consistent with Dutch (German) orthography.
Witsen's list was published in German by Tibor Mikola in 1975 (the Mordvin section is to be found on pp.
In addition to Hungarian, Finnish, Zyrian, Votyak, Vogul and Ostyak data, we can also find Mordvin words in this (that he collected either in Nizhny Novgorod or Kazan at the beginning of his expedition, in 1719).
The Mordvin data is wanting, as only 28 words are included in it (while only 16 Vogul and Ostyak, 17 Chuvash and 20 Votyak words).
Part of the Mordvin words is numerals from one to ten, and the rest is words for parts of the body and other basic notions.
The dictionary contains Russian, Tatar, Cheremis, Chuvash, Votyak, Komi-Permyak, Komi-Zyrian and Mordvin entries.
The Mordvin data of Muller's dictionary contains 313 words--Erzya expressions for the most part, from a dialect that used the sound [eta], cf.
Mordvin words are recorded in Cyrillic letters, according to the principles of Russian orthography: the hard sign is used in Mordvin as well, e.