After exemption was obtained from the institutional ethics review board, permanent mandibular first molars were evaluated on CBCT scans Using non-probability consecutive sampling technique.
CBCT scans having permanent mandibular first molars both males and females of Pakistani origin aged 16-60 years and mature roots with no root canal fillings were included.
Variation in number of cusps in human dentition can be a diagnostic tool in clinical dental research and anthropology for characterizing and classifying various ethnic groups.1 Cusps which basically build the occusal surface of dentition also vary in number within different species of primates' also.2 Various studies have shown different results regarding the presence of cusp numbers in mandibular molars to show whether they show the ethnicity or not.
The inclusion criteria included (i) the Presence of bilaterally erupted permanent mandibular first and second molars showing clear occlusal morphology,(ii) free from any carious lesion, (iii) age 12-20 years and (iv) belonging to one of three specific ethnic groups (Swati, Gujar and Jadoon).
In the present case, the extraction of mandibular third molars and mini-screw supported lower molar distalization was planned to provide Angle Class I molar relationship and solve crowding.
Class III elastic, which is one of the most widely used mechanisms for Class III correction, has disadvantages, such as the need for patient cooperation, tipping movement, anchorage loss and extrusion of maxillary molars (2).
Changes in inclination of the first permanent molars
are inextricably linked to changes in Anchorage.
Impacted mandibular third molars
: Depth of impaction and surgical methods of extraction among Nigerians.
(2006) reviewed the studies on the morphology of maxillary first molars
and showed that 57 % of mesibuccal roots had 2 or more root canals.
The following symptoms were evaluated: periosteal elevator was used to assess pain on the buccal aspect of the maxillary molars
, cold test for pulpal anaesthesia and pain during extractions.
Clinically, maxillary third molars
were missing bilaterally.
Methods: A total of 124 children (192 molars
) with deep caries treated from February 2014 to February 2015 were selected.
oyapocki was first described by Dubost and Petter (1978), its diagnosis included the absence of upper and lower third molars
, as well as the small size of its remaining cheek-teeth.
Removal of the impacted third molars
is one of the most frequently performed procedures in oral surgery (1).