In the shrimp industry, which is currently facing an increasingly complex and damaging epidemic due to the continuous development of farming areas and forms of farming to increase productivity (6), microsporidia
are serious pathogens associated with white faecal syndrome (WFS) and slow growth in shrimp in many of the shrimp growing countries in the world (7,8).
keratokonjonktiviti gelismesine yol acan laboratuvar mikrosporidya enfeksiyonu bildirilmistir.
Sethabutr, "Multiplex polymerase chain reaction method to detect Cyclospora, Cystoisospora, and Microsporidia
in stool samples," Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol.
Microsporidiosis is caused by Microsporidia
, which have been recognized as opportunistic pathogens for humans and animals [1, 2].
Less common parasites include Entamoeba Cystoisospora belli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Strongloides stercoralis, and microsporidia
. These parasites, all of which can be detected in laboratory testing, can be contracted through food or water or from other people, and are commonly picked up while traveling.
Some of the common parasites found in immunosuppressed patients are Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayeatanensis, Isospora belli, and Microsporidia
Neither Encephalitozoon or other microsporidia
have been associated with congenital malformations in animals or people .
The fungal group Microspora in the family Unikaryonidae can act as a hyperparasite on trematode larvae when ingested by a snail host, and microsporidia
can reduce Fasciola hepatica infections in snails (Canning et al.
Lower down, in the zone for more ancient branches, sprouted some oddball parasites such as Giardia (the bane of hikers who drink untreated water), sexually transmitted Trichomonas and tiny microsporidia
, which attack many animals.
The sporoplasm is released by spores into the cytoplasm of the oocyte through a polar tube mechanism common to microsporidia
(Becker & Pauley 1968).
are a group of parasites that are able to exploit a variety of different vertebrate and invertebrate species with effects ranging from benign infections to death through the use of complex single-celled spores.