As a biologist, I needed simple yet tunable cell -culture gels that would give me a defined system to study metabolites
in the laboratory.
To account for the diversity of metabolites
contained in plasma samples, ranging from hydrophilic amino acids to hydrophobic lipids, multiple complementary LC-MS and GC-MS methods were used.
Samples were analyzed at the CDC laboratory for the following phthalate metabolites
: monoethyl phthalate [MEP, a metabolite
of diethyl phthalate (DEP)], mono-w-butyl phthalate (MnBP, a metabolite
of DnBP), monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP, a metabolite
of DiBP), mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP, a nonspecific metabolite
of several high molecular weight phthalates and a minor metabolite
of DnBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP, a metabolite
of BzBP), and four metabolites
of DEHP: mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP).
Scientists at Auburn University investigated the antibacterial activity of the secondary metabolites
They are rapidly metabolised in the liver, and mainly eliminated in the urine as metabolites
within 48 hours.
There are many successful stories to control weeds by the use of fungal metabolites
(Evidente et al.
Earlier reports [6-9] indicate that after incubation with rat liver microsomes, there were six oxidative metabolites
of emodin observed, including 2-hydroxyemodin, 4-hydroxyemodin, 5- hydroxyemodin, 7-hydroxyemodin, o- hydroxyemodin and emodic acid.
Medical and nutrition researchers who are investigating serum metabolites
for these and other promising applications have a remarkable new resource for their studies.
They identified more than 600 liver-originated metabolites
, which are the chemical substances created by metabolism that sustain and promote cell health and growth.
For example, for steroids like Stanozolol or Nandrolone, the parent compound is not detected in a urine sample or reported by the laboratory, but the steroids' metabolites
must be identified to assess the safety of a drug candidate, as well as to determine pharmacokinetic profiles.
A more reproducible approach is to measure the metabolites
6-thioguanine (6-TGN) and 6 methylmercaptopurine (6MMP).
Recent improvements in LC-MS resolution, mass accuracy and sensitivity have enabled a new generation of instruments to analyse more complex mixtures and identify the metabolites
and sites where metabolism occurs.
Using Symyx Metabolite
's structure-searchable metabolic schemes, biotransformation explorer, and easy-to-use query and browse tools, scientists can quickly explore the fate of parent compounds, their metabolites
, and properties by leveraging in-house and Symyx database information.
The body breaks down inhaled 1-NP into several smaller molecules, called metabolites
, that show up in urine.