Concerning European waterbirds, for instance the north European populations of mallard Anas platyrhynchos have been declining or stable, the Baltic breeding population of the common eider Somateria mollissima has decreased, the Baltic and Scandinavian populations of the common merganser Mergus merganser
have probably decreased, and the populations of the goldeneye Bucephala clangula in northern and northwestern Europe have been stable (Wetlands International 2006).
Specifically, Huntsman postulated that the large parr of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), in their third year of river life, were vulnerable to predation by the belted kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon) and especially by the American merganser (Mergus merganser
) during years of low July-August rainfall.
Muscovy duck Cairina moschata Mallard Anas platyrhynchos Greater scaup Aythya marila Tufted duck Aythya fuligula Common merganser Mergus merganser
Smew Mergus albellus Falconiformes Common buzzard Buteo buteo Rough-legged hawk Buteo lagopus Peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus Galliformes Common peafowl Pavo cristatus Domestic chicken Gallus gallus Charadriiformes (herring gull) Larus argentatus Strigiformes (eagle owl) Bubo bubo Passeriformes (Eurasian magpie) Pica pica All birds No.
The species included in the analysis are the following: Anas acuta, Anser albifrons, Anser anser, Anser brachyrhynchus, Anas clypeata, Anas crecca, Anser erythropus, Anser fabalis, Aythya ferina, Aythya fuligula, Aythya marila, Aythya nyroca, Anas penelope, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas querquedula, Anas strepera, Branta bernicla, Bucephala clangula, Branta leucopsis, Branta ruficollis, Cygnus columbianus, Cygnus cygnus, Clangula hyemalis, Cygnus olor, Mergellus albellus, Marmaronetta angustirostris, Melanitta fusca, Mergus merganser
, Melanitta nigra, Mergus serrator, Netta rufina, Oxyura leucocephala, Polysticta stelleri, Somateria mollissima, Tadorna ferruginea, Tadorna tadorna.