Chen, "Genotypic diversity and genetic structure of populations of the distylous aquatic plant Nymphoides peltata (Menyanthaceae
) in China," Journal of Systematics and Evolution, vol.
Nymphoides hydrophylla III H R (Lour.) Kutze Marsileaceae Marsilea polycarpa Hook.
Other submersed aquatics have solved the problem of low oxygen availability in standing water by developing air circulation patterns within the plant body, as is known for non-monocots such as Nymphaeaceae and Menyanthaceae
. The complexity of these specializations correlates with the rather small number of families and genera that have adapted to the submersed aquatic habitat.
Rf Asterales Menyanthaceae
Nymphoides indica (L.) Kuntze Rf Asteraceae Ecliptaprostrata (L.) L.
Ledum groenlandicum Oeder - - - - + - - Menyanthaceae
A HLS Menyanthaceae
(a) & Nymphoides fallax Ornduff A HEHF Nymphaeaceaea @ * Nymphaea gracilis Zucc.
Em X Menyanthaceae
Nymphoides humboldtiana (Kunth) Kuntze FL X X Nymphaeaceae Nymphaea amazonum Mart.
Few of these are represented in the fossil record; macrofossil records include seeds assigned to Campanulaceae and Menyanthaceae
(Table 8), a stem assigned to Donatia (Donatiaceae or Stylidaceae) and fruits assigned to Asteraceae (Table 8).
One might argue that these style characters are symplesiomorphic, however primitive and advanced states recognition for these features depends on the choice of the outgroup (Calyceraceae, Goodeniaceae, Menyanthaceae
Preliminary phylogenetic studies in the Menyanthaceae
. Botany 2001 Abstracts.
[Striasyncolpites laxus]), indicating a high rainfall