The ultimate "success" for a sea duck hunter includes a drake of all three scoter species [black, surf and white-winged (Melanitta
fusca)], a long-tailed duck, and last, but certainly not least, the handsome common eider (Somateria mollissima).
nigra, Butorides virescens, Actitis macularius y Heteroscelus incanum.
Occurring in tandem have been declines in various populations of Alaska sea ducks including, for example: (1) a 54 percent decline between 1976 and 1994 of nesting common eider (Somateria mollissima) in northern Alaska and the western Canadian arctic; (2) a 2.2 percent annual decline between 1977 and 1998 in black scoter (Melanitta
nigra) in western Alaska; (3) a 5.5 percent annual decline of oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis) in surveyed areas in western Alaska since 1977; (4) over a 90 percent decline in spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) in the YK-Delta from the 1970s to 1992; and (5) the virtual disappearance of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) from the YK-Delta since initial surveys in the 1960s (USFWS 1999).
In particular, the Commission considers that the prohibition period in Finland for the hunting of certain common birds, which was recently extended to cover the period from April 10 to July 31, is still not extensive enough to fully cover the entire spring migration and breeding season of these species.In addition, the Commission considers that Finland is not justified in relying on derogations to allow the hunting of certain waterfowl species during Spring in certain municipalities on the Southern coast of Finland and on the ?land Islands (for example, Velvet Scoter, Melanitta
fusca and Woodcock Scolopax rusticola).
brant, Branta branta; scaup, Aythya sp.; goldeneye, Bucephala sp., scoters, Melanitta
sp., old squaw, Clangula hyemalis; eiders, Somateria sp.; and Harlequin ducks, Histrionicus histrionicus; other species can feed on small fish they find on shallow reefs, e.g.
Gulls (mainly Larus argentatus and Larus marinus) and crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) do feed on intertidal invertebrates during low tides, and other ducks (primarily scoters Melanitta
These include the wigeon (Anas penelope), velvet scoter (Melanitta
fusca), Baikal teal (Anas formosa) and wood sandpiper (Tringa glareola).
For example, in Commencement Bay, Washington, Surf Scoters (Melanitta
perspicillata) with a sediment-associated diet contained 50 times more cadmium in their kidneys than did fish-eating Western Grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis).
Predation rate, timing, and predator composition or scoters (Melanitta
spp.) in marine habitats.
clypeata Black Scoter 1052 684 Melanitta
nigra Surf Scoter M.
These mussels provide food for surf scoters Melanitta
perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) in Chesapeake Bay (Berlin 2008).
1994: The effects of disturbance caused by boating on survival and behaviour of velvet scoter Melanitta
fusca ducklings.--Biological Conservation 67: 119-124.
Nesting ecology of white-winged scoters Melanitta
fusca deglandi at Redberry Lake, Saskatchewan.
The species included in the analysis are the following: Anas acuta, Anser albifrons, Anser anser, Anser brachyrhynchus, Anas clypeata, Anas crecca, Anser erythropus, Anser fabalis, Aythya ferina, Aythya fuligula, Aythya marila, Aythya nyroca, Anas penelope, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas querquedula, Anas strepera, Branta bernicla, Bucephala clangula, Branta leucopsis, Branta ruficollis, Cygnus columbianus, Cygnus cygnus, Clangula hyemalis, Cygnus olor, Mergellus albellus, Marmaronetta angustirostris, Melanitta
fusca, Mergus merganser, Melanitta
nigra, Mergus serrator, Netta rufina, Oxyura leucocephala, Polysticta stelleri, Somateria mollissima, Tadorna ferruginea, Tadorna tadorna.
Cinco especies solo fueron observadas en Agua Dulce (Anas platyrhynchos, Branta bernicla, Gavia immer, Melanitta
perspicillata, Podiceps attritus y Podiceps nigricollis) y cinco en El Ermitano (Anas penelope, Anas strepera, Dendrocygna bicolor, Porphyrula martinica y Tachybaptus dominicus).