Stress, anxiety, interferences in occlusion, and teeth loss causing mal-alignment of residual dentition, leading to unfavorable loading, masticatory muscles
dysfunction and related structures, external and internal effects on TMJ area and/or combination of these can act as factors of TMDs.4,6 Occlusion has been considered to have a role in the aetiology of TMDs.5,7 The number of missing teeth is directly related to development of clicking sounds in the TMJ.8,9 Due to loss of posterior teeth the secondary changes can occur e.g.
 Laskin (1969) reported that the etiological factor that cause of temporomandibular joint disorder is muscular hyperactivity induced by abnormal contraction and relaxation of various masticatory muscles
, psychological stress and parafunctional oral habits, that may lead to muscular fatigue, causes spasm, and restricted jaw movements resulting in temporomandibular joint dysfunction, further noted that this disorder may cause occlusal disharmony, deformation in articulation leading to alteration in muscular activity.
TMD-induced mechanical dysfunctions (repetitive stimuli caused by bruxism and gripping teeth, associated with myogenic pain from the masticatory muscles
) lead to release of serotonin and norepinephrine from the dorsal raphe and locus ceruleus, with an activation of a cascade of events (50).
Cranial traits related the performance of masticatory muscles
suggest parallelisms among some bat species with the same diet.
The prevalence of TMJ disorders in the subjects was as follows: crepitus (31%), pain in masticatory muscles
(10%), pain at food mastication (24%) and pain at mouth opening (14%) (Table 3).
Prior to the survey, 41% of the dentists reported not aware that PTs can treat patients with TMD by, for example, reeducating jaw movements, and restoring masticatory muscles
Consequent head and neck computed tomography revealed hypoxic--ischaemic encephalopathy and fatty degeneration of masticatory muscles
. No temporomandibular joint bone malformation was observed (Figure 1).
Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) is a collective term that involves several clinical problems affecting the masticatory muscles
, temporomandibular joints and associated structures (1).
Frenulectomy of the tongue and the influence of rehabilitation exercises on the SEMG activity of masticatory muscles
. J Electromyogr Kinesiol.
Correlation between facial patterns and function of the masticatory muscles
in girls and women.
This reduces muscular contraction in masticatory muscles
by suppressing the mechanoreceptor activity due to shortened disclusion time.
The reason for this appears to be that poorly fitting dentures lower masticatory performance and occlusal force; thus, weakening masticatory muscles
and reducing salivary secretion, decreasing the effects of saliva on candida.
Researchers have come to understand the importance of internal factors that influence fracture patterns such as mandibular anatomy, bone mineral density, and masticatory muscles
. Considering that morphological variation is a factor that could influence fracture type, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between condylar morphology and condylar fracture patterns that occur because of parasymphyseal impact.
Among their topics are the development of a clinical microvascular imaging and vascular optics facility: the Newcastle Upon Tyne experience, the infrared thermal diagnosis of orthopaedic injury in childhood, the thermal evaluation of myogenous temporo-mandibular disorders and myofascial trigger point in the masticatory muscles
, infrared thermography as a means of monitoring and preventing sports injuries, infrared thermography in swimming: thermal characterizations of swimming technique, and the thermographic evaluation of racehorse performance.
Juvenile parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma in a dog causing unilateral denervation atrophy of masticatory muscles
. J Comp Pathol 126: 303-307.