The Marcher Lords
provided the archers and Thomas remains in awe of skills that he describes as in the same league as the Hollywood deeds of Errol Flynn in Robin Hood.
Meanwhile Germans had conquered the Brandenburg area to the west and the margraves, or marcher lords
, of Brandenburg became Electors of the Holy Roman Empire.
The castle once stood above the hills of the Rhondda, which remained in Welsh control long after the Norman marcher lords
had conquered the richer lands to the south.
Intermittent disputes arose with the Marcher lords
, but Llywelyn made use of marriage alliances to preserve his rule - his daughters became wives of Marchers.
Traditional `Westminster-centred' scholarship has by and large ignored the plight of Tudor marcher lords
, though the work of Mervyn James offers some valuable insights.
Several of the local English Marcher lords
had withdrawn from the king's fealty and were supporting Llywelyn in his campaign in the Usk Valley near Abergavenny.
The Battle of Hastings was fought for the crown of England, but William the Conqueror subsequently allowed his Marcher lords
to take on divided Cymric princedoms in smaller wars.
She married Ralph de Mortimer in 1230: the Mortimers were the Marcher Lords
who became firstly the Earls of March and thence the Dukes of York.
"The 'Marcher Lords
' were Norman barons loyal to William I, who built an intricate series of defensive strongholds on the English-Welsh borders, or Marches, from Chester down to Chepstow." She said this area represented a wild frontier, where dense woods, deep rivers and high mountains favoured the Welsh.
Davis begins by summarising the chronology of castle buildings in Wales, starting with those constructed by the Norman Marcher Lords
to stamp their authority on a newly invaded countryside.
Outside Gwynedd, it could be argued that some of the Marcher Lords
in the rest of Wales saw themselves as being part of the wider community.
Beaumont's new castle, the administrative seat of the Marcher Lords
of Gower, was a medieval powerhouse.
When Gerald was writing the Lord Rhys and his sons were seizing castles and lands from the English crown and marcher lords
across a broad swathe of south Wales.