Traditional light microscopy (Figure 1(c)) together with surface profilometry revealed that the newly formed osteoclasts isolated from patients with acute Charcot osteoarthropathy exhibited increased resorbing activity in M-CSF
+ RANKL-treated cultures compared with osteoclasts generated from diabetic patients and healthy controls, as indicated by a significantly increased area of resorption on the surface (Figure 1(d)) and under the surface (Figure 1(e)).
We utilised L929 supernatant, which has been demonstrated to be a potent source of M-CSF
and has previously been shown to increase the proliferation and survival of microglia .
With regard to the involvement of TNF-[alpha] in osteoclastogenesis in arthritis, M-CSF
blocking may be effective.
BSA was used as the control vehicle; cells treated with 50 ng/mL M-CSF
were used as the positive control.
Zheng et al., "Induction of functional human macrophages from bone marrow promonocytes by M-CSF
in humanized mice," The Journal of Immunology, vol.
Our failure to obtain a statistical association between NHS test failure and MMP-9, C5a, M-CSF
, and endostatin levels in the umbilical cord plasma in the present study merits attention.
There were large numbers of TRAP-positive cells among osteoclast precursor cells cultured with M-CSF
and RANKL or TNF-[alpha].
BMMs (5 x [10.sup.4] cells/well) were incubated with [alpha]-MEM containing 10% FBS, M-CSF
(30 ng/ml), sRANKL (100 ng/ml), and different concentrations of liensinine or nuciferine for 5 days.
BMMs were seeded onto Osteo assay plates coated with thin calcium phosphate films (Corning, New York, USA), incubated with M-CSF
and RANKL for 3 days until multinudeated osteoclasts were formed, and then they were treated with R.
It was proposed recently that at least 26 genes are involved in osteoclast differentiation and reg- ulation including tyrosine kinase gene M-CSF
C-fos Pu.1 and NF-B (osteoclast formation) and C-tyrosine kinase and micropthalmia transcription factor in os- teoclast activity.37 The role of the RANK-RANKL-OPG axis in bone remodeling was discussed in the previous section.38 Kanzaki et al39 observed an increase in RANKL mRNA expression in the PDL after exogenous PGE2 treatment and concluded that in mechanically stressed PDL cells RANKL up-regulation depended on PGE2.
It has been reported that the cytokines IL-1[beta] , TNF-[alpha] [38, 43, 44], IL-6 [63-65], IL-8 [64, 65], RANKL , M-CSF
, TGF-[beta] , IL-2 , and IFN-[gamma]  were locally increased during orthodontic tooth movement.
Thanks to M-CSF
, it may be possible to stimulate the production of useful cells while avoiding to produce those that can inadvertently attack the body of these patients.
Soluble recombinant mouse RANKL was purified from insect cells as described previously , and recombinant human M-CSF
was a gift from Daved H.
The identification of a more defined DC precursor was inspired by observations that Flt3 ligand (Flt3L), GM-CSF, and M-CSF
could support DC development in vitro.
Increased myeloid cell responses to M-CSF
and RANKL cause bone loss and inflammation in Sh3bp2 "Cherubism" mice.