In his chapter about time, Loewen offers a sophisticated analysis of Low German
conceptions of time.
The great number of the phonetic shapes of the word recorded from Low German
and Early High German suggests that the borrowing might occurred from different word shapes.
In case of dubious Estonian Swedish loans either a Swedish source is possible (tups 'tassel'), or Swedish or Finland Swedish (holm 'reef), Finland Swedish (rool 'steering wheel'), Low German
(viik 'bay'), Baltic German (karbus 'hood'), Low German
or Baltic German (porss 'gale'), or Finnish (pass 'ram').
On the Germany side of this area, however, the linguistic status of Low German
and North Frisian, while sociologically quite weak, has been legally strengthened by Germany's decision to adopt the Council of Europe's definition of autochthonous minorities.
The enforcement of such policies disturbed the traditional practices of Mennonite communities, and established a hierarchical language system of intersecting classes of linguistic space, specifically: English for school; High German for church; and Low German
for home and everyday life.
But the scope of this collection excludes, for example, fifteenth-century books (I avoid the term incunabula, which arbitrarily and misleadingly refers to books printed before 1500 as though they were somehow different from those printed for the next quarter-century or so), the vast majority of which were on religious topics, and which included dozens of editions of the Bible in the vernacular--twenty-four editions of the full Bible in German and Low German
alone were printed before Luther's 1522 September Testament.
The other thing that I learned about Northumbrian dialect words is that they are all derived from Low German
and, indeed, were you to take yourselves to the Friesian Islands (no, neither am I) you would find many Northumbrian words in everyday use there.
Knack' probably comes from 'knak', Dutch or Low German
for a sharp blow, while 'knacker' developed from 'hnakkur' or 'knakhr', respectively Old Norse and Icelandic for harness maker and saddle.
In the fifth article in the book part on political and historical borders, Larissa Naiditch provides an overview of the consonant system in Mennonite Low German
This little book also is one of the few remaining Low German
hymnals dating from Luther's lifetime.
Wiebe is at his most original, however, in the area of language, thanks to the fact that he grew up speaking three languages almost interchangeably: Low German
at home and with neighbours, High German at church and on formal occasions, and English at school and increasingly among friends as he grew older.
The original legends offered are "Osvalds Saga", which is the oldest vernacular legend on the continent, and an edition of "Van Sunte Oswaldo Deme Konninghe", an abbreviated Low German
legend deriving from the earliest version.
The Thaler is the original silver dollar (the word 'dollar' derives from the Low German
'taler') and is the subject of Clara Semple's detailed and lovingly crafted 'biography'.
Another low German
translation of 1668 (the Wahrhafftige Beschreibung des neu erfundenen Pineser Eylands sampt dessert Volckern) was, however, based on the Amsterdam and Rotterdam versions, but was collated with the original English version (Hippe 85, 100-101).
But what both these languages and indeed their Scandinavian cousin Swedish had in common, and of course still have, was a high proportion of Low German