The original Finnic word for 'dog' was rather Proto-Finnic *peni 'dog' (< Proto-Uralic *peni 'dog'), replaced as the main word for this meaning everywhere except Livonian
and South Estonian (cf.
The brachiopods in the deepest-water part of the basin (Livonian
Basin) are poorly known (Table S4), excepting the topmost Ordovician Hirnantian brachiopod fauna (Hints & Harper 2015; Harper & Hints 2016).
Following Bloch, in my first book I explicitly chose to limit myself to historical comparison only--a choice which compelled me to suggest that the resemblances between the benandanti and Thiess, the Livonian
werewolf, pointed to a (completely forgotten) historical connection between Friuli and the Baltic region, possibly implying Slavic elements that they both have in common.
Consequently, the first Estonian song celebration, dedicated to the fiftieth anniversary of the end of serfdom of the Livonian
peasants, actually outlined the objectives of national advancement, unity, and cultural independence (1).
Only during the Middle Ages (ca 12251558 AD) did an extensive cloth trade begin--mediated by Hanseatic merchants with imported fabrics from Western Europe becoming an important part of consumption habits in Livonian
Hanseatic towns (e.g.
Under pressure from the Great War Veterans' Association, the federal government allowed the Press Censor to prevent the publication of papers in enemy languages including German, Bulgarian, Ukrainian, Hungarian, Turkish, Finnish, Ruthenian, Estonian, Croatian, and Livonian
as well as banning these languages at public meetings.
Archaeobotanical study sheds light on food consumption in Livonian
towns during the medieval period and the way this corresponded with the Hanseatic trading patterns of the Baltic region.
Fleming concludes with the remarkable story of Julie von Krudener, a Livonian
mystic whose dramatic life and visionary writings presaged the Romantic age.
Enlightener August Wilhelm Hupel 1737-1819.
Due to the fact, that in 13-16th centuries the Teutonic order and the Livonian
order bordered Samogitia, it was always threatened by their expansionist aims.
, a Uralic language, whose last surviving native speaker, Grizelda KristiAa, died in June 2013.
Zajas takes the unique path of presenting Livonian
history according to two cultures, German and Polish.
The purpose of this article is to evaluate the Livonian
villages, in order to understand the amount of preserved traditional architecture and landscape elements and their sets, their infrastructure, how powerful and strong is the traditional landscape identity of these villages today, and, finally, the amount of cultural and historical items saved up till nowadays.
Despite the fact that Russian-speaking minorities accounted for approximately 36% of the population, while the Livonian
language, which gained an official language status, is the first language of only approximately 200 people.
Development of laryngealization through apocope has been described for Livonian
, an endangered Fennic language spoken in Latvia, where "stod" (a term mostly used for a similar feature with contrastive function in Danish) is realized as concomitant with the final remaining vowel: *valo > va'l 'light' (Eliasson 2005, 1117).