The senita and senita-moth mutualism is the sixth known case of interaction of pollination with seed consumption; other cases include figs and fig wasps, yucca and yucca moths, Trollius europaeus and Chiastocheta flies, Lithophragma and Greya moths, and Silene and Hadena moths.
Presence of co-pollinators is a similarity between the senita mutualism and interactions between Lithophragma and Greya moths.
Within genera, sequence divergence for the combined ITS-1/ITS-2 data set ranged from 0.000 to 0.038 (mean of 0.019) for all collections of Heuchera; from 0.004 to 0.084 (mean of 0.054) in Mitella: for the two species of Tiarella and Lithophragma mean sequence-divergence values were 0.011 and 0.020, respectively.
Within genera, ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequence values ranged, respectively, from 0.000 to 0.046 (mean of 0.019) and 0.000 to 0.047 (mean of 0.022) in Heuchera, from 0.000 to 0.092 (mean of 0.056) and 0.074 to 0.094 (mean of 0.059) in Mitella; values were 0.008 and 0.038, respectively, for the two species of Lithophragma; for the two species of Tiarella, ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequence-divergence values were 0.005 and 0.017.
The first group (Group 1), comprises species of Lithophragma, Tellima grandiflora, Bensoniella oregona, Tolmiea menziesii, all species of Heuchera examined, and Mitella pentandra, M.
This results in a large polytomy within Heuchera [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 6 OMITTED]; also present is a polytomy involving Heuchera, Tellima, and Lithophragma. We therefore removed two very similar ITS-1 sequences from the data set (H.
Within Group 1 [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4 OMITTED], the monophyly of Lithophragma is well supported (decay value of 16), as is the monophyly of Tellima (decay value of 4), samples of which represent both the "northern" and "southern" cpDNA types (Soltis et al.
Whereas most genera appear monophyletic based on ITS sequence data (e.g., Lithophragma, Heuchera, and Tiarella), Mitella is clearly not monophyletic.
politella pollinate Lithophragma plants passively while ovipositing through the corolla into the ovary.
politella and cpDNA evolution in Lithophragma indicate two points about these interactions.
Traditionally, the Lithophragma populations have been divided into as many as nine species (Taylor 1965), but the molecular data (and associated morphological and ecological data) suggest that there are two species groups with indistinct species limits among populations within those groups.
politella suggest that it probably originated on the L parviflorum complex and then subsequently colonized the other Lithophragma clade of populations (L.
Most populations in the complex have relatively deep corollas (in comparison with the other Lithophragma clade) and all have a specialized broad stigma that is receptive only along its edge (called a franciscan stigma) [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1 OMITTED].
Phylogenetic relationships within Lithophragma (Saxifragaceae): Hybridization, allopolyploidy, and ovary diversification.
Structural homology and developmental transformations associated with ovary diversification in Lithophragma (Saxifragaceae).