Several reviews have been published on lanthanoids chemistry.
A number of studies have been carried out for computational simulation of the hydration of lanthanoids. Terrier et al.
This def-TZVP basis consists of the Stuttgart--Dresden pseudopotentials [10,30,31], which replaced 28 core electrons (46 in the case of La) with the corresponding def-TZVP basis sets on lanthanoids and the TZVP basis  on other atoms.
In the second step, which was performed only with the BP functional, we used pseudopotentials for the lanthanoids, where the core-shell electrons were sub-stituted by the scalar-relativistic 4f-in-core (substituting 46 (La) to 60 (Lu) inner electrons) pseudopotential [10,33] and the corresponding (7s6p5d)/[5s4p3d] , (5s5p4d)/[4s4p3d] + 2s1p1d [10,34], and (6s6p5d)/[4s4p4d] + 2s1p1d [10,34,35] basis sets for lanthanoids.
Hydration binding energies were calculated for all lanthanoids (Ln) by Eq.
Lanthanoid metals are attractive as magnetic materials because of their high spin numbers and strong magnetic anisotropies on the 4f orbitals.
Ohkoshi, "Monometallic lanthanoid assembly showing ferromagnetism with a Curie temperature of 11 K," Inorganic Chemistry, vol.
The number of Lanthanoids and Actinides placed at the foot of the Periodic Table as independent rows equals the maximum number of electrons at the f-Sublevel in analogy with common elements, i.e.
f-elements: electrons fill f-sub-shells; they are Lanthanoids and Actinides.
The distribution coefficients of the lanthanoids were determined in three series of experiments:
The synergistic solvent extraction of the lanthanoids was studied using a traditional and effective means of obtaining both stoichiometric and equilibrium constant information about extraction processes, called "slope analysis".
The variation of the equilibrium constants [K.sub.T], [K.sub.P], [K.sub.TS], and [K.sub.P,S] versus the atomic number Z of the representative lanthanoids is given in Fig.
It is evident that all lanthanoids are extracted synergistically (S.C.
2 show increasing ionic potential from left to right, with K, Na, Rb, Ba, and Sr representing the large ion lithophile elements (LILE: Z/r < 2), and La-Yb the mostly trivalent lanthanoid (rare earth) elements (which can be grouped with Y which behaves like Yb).
A different behaviour is exhibited by the lanthanoid series elements (one of the 2 REE series), which are less mobile and always present in higher amounts in the [PM.sub.10] fraction than in the parent PM of all samples.