: from linguistic segregation outside the common framework of Hispanic languages to a de facto standard.
'I have heard Ladino, the Judeo-Spanish
of the time of the Expulsion, spoken in Sofia, Buenos Aires and Istanbul,' says Vara de Rey.
is the dialect of Spanish spoken by Sephardic Jews in the Eastern Mediterranean, the Balkans, and the Levant.
It is difficult to estimate how many people can benefit from the new measure but Justice Minister Alberto Ruiz Gallardon estimated in 2012 that there are about 250,000 people around the world who speak Judeo-Spanish
, a language used by Jews originating from Spain.
Jane Gerber provides a historical overview of Sephardic groups in the United States, pointing out that, among other factors, the cohesion and strong rabbinical leadership of Syrians distinguished them from Judeo-Spanish
testimonies; an edition of eighty-four testimonies from the Sephardic responsa in the Ottoman Empire.
Marie-Christine Varol presents the Judeo-Spanish
literary tradition of Alexander and glossed proverbs.
Is it Ladino, Judeo-Spanish
, Judezmo, Djudio or Djidio, Spanyolit, Judeo-Ibero-Romance, or Oriental Spanish?
Katz, a reputed Hispanist with a thorough knowledge of traditional music and a regular visitor of the Iberian Peninsula, is one of the world's major authorities in Judeo-Spanish
Finally, an indication of Maghribi migration to Tiherias can be found in food recipes in Tiherian Judeo-Arabic, which include many Judeo-Spanish
While it is frequently retold that the Bulgarian government elected not to deport some 50 000 Jews from Bulgaria to German death camps in Poland, what is generally not revealed is that Bulgaria was directly complicit in the murder of some 13 000 other Jews from their lands of Bulgarian Thrace and Macedonia--mostly, Judeo-Spanish
speaking Jews of Greek and Ottoman-Turkish descent.
But like the assimilated Viennese Jews who shunned Yiddish, it is also clear that Freud felt a degree of disdain for an "Oriental" Jew, whom he calls a Comptoir-Esel, who "brayed" a historically valid form of Judeo-Spanish
. Perhaps this was an unwanted intrusion into the fantasy world of the Academia Espanola, just as Yiddish-speaking Ostjuden (like his parents!) might seem a rude intrusion into the world of his good German Kultur and Bildung.
But the reader also encounters very narrowly-themed articles such as "Humor and Satire in Judeo-Spanish
Song" or Paul Wexler's "Two-Tiered Relexification in Yiddish: Jews, Sorbs, Khazars, and the Kiev-Polessian Dialect," a summary of his book of the same title.
Ladino is a Judeo-Spanish
culture with roots dating back to the Middle Ages when Jews fled from Spain and the Catholic Church for the Middle East.
THE two other women singers, Mariza (Tuesday, in Hall 1) and Yasmin Levy (Thursday in Hall 2) specialise in the traditional fado music of Portugal and the Ladino hybrid of Judeo-Spanish