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Thereafter the author isolates a number of important facets: Jewish settlement prior to the regulatory statute of 1275; the position of Jews as "royal villeins" -- under Edward's protection but very much at his disposal; the manner and extent of the exaction of royal tallage; the attempt to prohibit usury -- entailing the "Edwardian experiment"; as well as the economic conditions of widespread "provincial Jewries.
Because he primarily focuses on government policies toward Jews and the nature of gentile-Jewish relations, the book intentionally offers little insight into the internal communal dynamics of European Jewries and Jewish religious and intellectual trends.
The problem is not so much that the exceptionalist mode denies similarities between American and European Jewries, but that it simply ignores them for the purpose of delineating differences and identifying their causes.
This alliance has the advantage of tying together major forces in those two previously isolationist Jewries in a common front that is making its ideas felt throughout Europe.
Goldberg (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996), 89-99; Avraham Cohen, "Iranian Jewry and the Educational Endeavors of the Alliance Israelite Universelle," Jewish Social Studies 48 (Winter 1986): 15-44; Aron Rodrigue, French Jews, Turkish Jews: Alliance Israelite Universelle and the Politics of Jewish Schooling in Turkey, 1860-1925 (Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1990); Simon Schwarzfuchs, Les Juifs d'Algerie et la France, 1830-1855 (Jerusalem: Institut Ben-Zvi, 1981); Zvi Yehuda, "Iraqi Jewry and Cultural Change in the Educational Activity of the Alliance Israelite Universelle," in Goldberg, Sephardi and Middle Eastern Jewries, 134-45.
Perhaps also we need to re-focus from how the Middle East problem looks from the perspective of top-down peace-making efforts in distant Oslo or even Camp David to a closer look at the fabric of coexistence of Sephardic and Oriental Jewries with Muslim and Arab societies during the 13 centuries before the re-founding of Israel.
It is not probable that we shall ever develop in America the type of layman so common in some of the older European Jewries, notably in Lithuania and Russia, who without being professionally a Rabbi, had the learning of a Rabbi" Rabbi Louis Finkelstein observed in the 1920s.
Quoted in Aron Rodrigue, Jews and Muslims: Images of Sephardi and Eastern Jewries in Modern Times (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003), 236-38.
Sensitive to the inadequacies of the conventional, bipolar division of European Jewries into Western and Eastern so as to account for their emancipation, Sorkin persuasively substitutes a tripartite scheme: in the West "the scope of the emancipation process was narrow and the transition .
He is the author of numerous books on American and world Jewries.
Jewries at the Frontier: Accommodation, Identity, Conflict (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999).
The accusation of ethnic cleansing that some people level at Israel -- a country with an enfranchised Arab citizenry totalling today over one million people and approximately 20 per cent of its population -- is certainly germane to the case of Jewries depopulated by the consequences of Arab policy and sentiment.