Halperin, "The kipchak Connection: The Ilkhans, the Mamluks, and Ayn Jalut
," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 63, 2 (2000): 229-45.
The Mamluk and Mongol armies encamped in Palestine in July 1260, and met at Ayn Jalut on September 8th.
The Mamluks were able to destroy the Mongol army at Ayn Jalut - and again at the second battle of Homs in 1281--by a series of attacks; their command and control mechanisms must have been impressive.
Shortly after Ayn Jalut, the Mongols were defeated again at Homs in 1260 by an army combining Ayyubid levies and Mamluks.
Add to that the symbolism of the usage of Islamic terms in Arafat's nora de guerre (Abu Ammar) and the names of his brigades: al-Aqsa, Hittin, Ein Jalut
, Qadisiyya, all named after great Islamic battles (not necessarily Arab), and you have a wide sampling of the depth and the extent of Islamic hold over Palestinian nationalism.
They ruled Iran for a century after the death of the Mongol Genghis Khan in 1227, and their formal political entity (the Ilkhanid state) was created in 1256; but just four years later, in 1260, the Mongols faced a serious setback in the west, when they failed to secure Syria and Egypt after being defeated at the battle of Ayn Jalut
by the Egypt-based Mamluks.
So too have the names of the Palestine Liberation Army's regiments: al-Aqsa (refers to the mosque in Jerusalem), Hittin (Saladin's victory over the Crusaders), Ein Jalut
(victory against the Mongol invasion), etc.
That summer, the Egyptian Mamluk army engaged this unit at Ayn Jalut in Palestine and, fighting on advantageous terms, as the Mamluks saw it (more on this later), defeated and drove them from the Levant.
An introduction discusses the scholarship and sources, two chapters then treat Mongol expansion and the rise of the Mamluks to power in Egypt, the Mongols' invasion of Syria, and their defeat by the Mamluks at Ayn Jalut.
But in the aftermath of the Mamluk victory over the Mongols at Ayn Jalut in 1260, several attempts were made to resurrect the caliphate in the Mamluk sultanate, taking advantage of the two Abbasid scions who had made their way to Syria.
Only after the Mamluk victory at Ayn Jalut was Abu 'l-Abbas in the limelight again, when the Mamluk ruler Qutuz sent an officer to make in his name an oath of loyalty to him as caliph.