This testimony emphasises some of the limits to the constitution of black internationalisms.
Such relations unsettle the divisions between 'centre' and 'periphery' which have often structured ways of narrating communist internationalism and politics.
The first section engages with recent scholarship on black internationalism, drawing out the implications of such work for theorising the intersections of communist internationalism and the black left(s).
4) This agenda is significant for work on black internationalism as many key figures such as Paul Robeson, W.
15) This analysis was based on a strong critique of the forms of internationalism envisioned by the Second International.
To note that the 'New Negro' movement is at the same time a 'new' black internationalism is to move against the grain of much of the scholarship on African American culture in the 1920s, which has tended to emphasize US-bound themes of cultural nationalism, civil rights protest, and uplift in the literary culture of the 'Harlem Renaissance'.
She argues that there is vital work to be done to theorise, learn from, and note the differences between current social movements and sensibilities and eighteenth, nineteenth century and early twentieth century transnational social movements and their cosmopolitan perspectives, including various forms of internationalism displayed by labour, Pan-Africanism, anticolonialism and feminism'.
Glick Schiller's injunction to learn from the diverse traditions that have mobilised and shaped internationalism in the past is instructive.
Accounts of their collaborative work emphasise the importance of engaging with geographies of connection that exceed relations between national left politics and internationalism.
There are at least two versions of black internationalism here.
As Makalani argues, the interventions of such anti-colonial radicals could 'stretch' the political theorisations associated with communist internationalism.