At schools many Korean students were also bullied (ijime
) or beaten up by their Japanese classmates, or discriminated against by their Japanese teachers (Fukuoka 2000, 62, 85, and 94).
The hammering down of individuals begins in the school yard where ijime
[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (bullying) is prevalent.
En la decada de los ochenta y noventa tambien en Japon con la acunacion del termino ijime
, similar aunque no identico al maltrato entre iguales y en otros paises como el Reino Unido (Arora y Thompson, 1987; Smith y Thompson, 1991; Smith y Sharp, 1994; Whitney y Smith, 1993), Estados Unidos (Perry, Kusel y Perry, 1988), Australia (Rigby y Slee, 1991), Canada (Pepler y Rubin, 1991) y Nueva Zelanda (Cleary, 1993), donde se convierten en temas tradicionales en las investigaciones psicopedagogicas y toman forma en campanas de lucha de ambito nacional, regional y local.
Of universal origin it goes by many names: ijime
in Japan, "mobbing" in Scandinavia, "bullying" in the UK and Commonwealth countries, "psychological intimidation" and "harassment" in French and Spanish-speaking countries (le harcelement moral; el acoso moral), "psychological terror" (psychoterror) in Germany, and "harassment," "emotional abuse," and "bullying" in the United States.
(bullying) problem in Japanese public schools is well known and has resulted in the recent phenomenon of hikikomori (stay-at-home) kids.
, tokokyohi, kounaibouryoku mondai ni kansuru anketo chosa kekka [The results of a survey about problems of bullying, truancy, and school violence].
According to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, there were 22,000 cases of ijime
peer bullying and 29,000 displays of violence at elementary and junior high schools in fiscal 2002.
Much of the debate focused on the much-publicized incidence of ijime
-- bullying -- and other indicators of dysfunction.
Many schools refuse to accept those students even today; and of those who are accepted, more than 69 percent of them reported that they became the target of that special systematic abuse called ijime
(bullying) in Japanese (Kikokushijo Soushichi Kiyachi 1990).