through epidermal and epithemal hydathodes (Haberlandt, 1914;
exude through hydathodes located at the tips, edges, adaxial and abaxial
Distribution and anatomy of hydathodes in Asteraceae.
We observed four types of trichomes: hydathode trichome, long conic trichome, short conic trichome and bulb-based trichome.
At present, many studies have identified that water can diffuse into leaves through the cuticle [9, 12, 14], hydathodes , and absorbent trichomes .
Willert, "Leaf epidermal hydathodes and the ecophysiological consequences of foliar water uptake in species of Crassula from the Namib Desert in Southern Africa," Plant Biology, vol.
stomata, or hydathodes
(reviewed by Beattie & Lindow, 1995), or
1 mm apart, diverging at 75-85[grados] from costa; hydathodes
absent; fertile fronds 22-33 cm long; stipes 1/5-2/5 of frond length; fertile blades 15-27 x 1.9-3.7 cm, narrowly elliptic, basally attenuate to acute, apically acute; intersporangial scales absent.
Openings in leaves, often at the tip, through which water can pass out in liquid form.
The structure and development of the hydathodes
of Spartina townsendii Groves.
80[grados] from costa; hydathodes
lacking; blade scales 1-2 x 0.2-0.5 mm, subulate, dark brown to black, marginally entire, present only on the margin; fertile fronds 25-40 cm long; stipes 2/3-3/4 the frond length; fertile blades 12-18 x 2.2-3.0 cm, lanceolate, basically obtuse to rounded, apically acute; intersporangial scales absent.
1 mm apart; hydathodes
absent; fertile fronds 9 cm; stipe ca.
and thickening in the tracheids near the hydathodes
(Garg et al., 1994).
Such structures are regarded as functional analogues to hydathodes
, which typically occur in angiosperms (Ziegenspeck, 1948) and may maintain a sufficient water flow (and nutrient supply) by guttating water, which, in turn, facilitates a constant xylem stream when transpiration is reduced (Ziegler, 1982).
associated with glands, hydathodes
, and nectaries; Guttenberg (1943) and Napp-Zinn (1973-1973) provide some information on these topics.